98 TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF BURMA.
is, however, a certain amount of evidence afforded by the style of the buildings and the stone sculptures. Of the cylindrical-shaped pagodas of ancient date, the best known are the Thaukkyama, Myinbahu, Bawbawgyi,
Payagyi, and Payama. The first has been thoroughly renovated, and has lost all traces of its original form ; the upper portion of the second has been modernised, but its lower part still retains some of the features of its
ancient architecture. Of the remaining three, whose form bespeaks their leaning towards the Sivite cult, Bawbawgyi is the best preserved, and Government has undertaken to conserve it. This edifice may be described
as a cylindrical dome resting on five receding terraces, and crowned with an iron hti. It has a slight indentation in the centre, and the upper portion below the hti is shaped like a cone, or the termination of a phallic emblem.
It is 153 feet high from the natural ground level to the top of the hti, and is 240 feet in circumference.
The stone sculptures derive their style from the familiar Gupta work of Northern India, and may be assigned to the seventh century a.d., if not earlier. Their characteristic feature is the occurrence of two chauri-bearers flanking the Buddha, which appears to claim kinship with the famous paintings and figures in the Ajanta Caves in the Bombay Presidency.
Pagan.aAll conceivable forms of Burmese architecture are found at Pagan. The architectural energy of the Burmese kings lasted for about a thousand years, that is, from the third to the thirteenth century a.d., and was most active from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, owing to the impulse given to it by Anawrata after his conquest of the Talaing kingdom of Thaton. The oldest of the shrines appears to be the Ngakywe Nadaung, a tuber-shaped pagoda of no pretentious dimensions, built of green enamelled bricks, and crowned with what looks like a small domed chamber, thereby bespeaking its Chinese origin. The Sinhalese influence is reflected in the Sapada Pagoda, which was built in the twelfth century a.d., by Sapada, a native of Bassein, who was ordained a Buddhist monk in Ceylon, and who founded a sect at Pagan. Architects from the Deccan were evidently employed in the construction of the temples erected in the eleventh century a.d., by Manuha, the captive King of the Talaings, and Kyanzittha, the reputed son of Anawrata. The pose, contour, and drapery of the images of the Buddha and of the figures sculptured on stone are distinctly South-Indian, and the structures, like the Nagayon and the Ananda, are square edifices with mandapas or porches, and are provided with vaulted chambers and corridor passages, into which a subdued light gleams from above. The most interesting class of buildings, which would repay a careful study, is, however, that to which the Shwesandaw and Shwezigon belong. They are solid domes with sharp pinnacles, in which the types of the Indian stupa, of the Sinhalese dagoba, and of other cognate structures in China, are found combined. There are also cave temples constructed after Indian models, built against the precipitous sides of ravines or hollowed out of sand dunes, of which the Kyaukku is the prototype. They were intended to be a combined residence and temple, and served their purpose well in the torrid climate of Pagan. Of the numerous pagodas of Pagan, illustrations are given of the Ananda and Thatbyinnyu. The former
SULE PAGODA, RANGOON.SULE PAGODA, RANGOON.