OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
The Philippines lie in the great coffee belt of the world, and it is absurd to say that the berry cannot be successfully grown there. The Southern Philippines and the Sulu Islands are as well adapted to this industry as Luzon, and we expect to see the day when that region will be one of the great coffee-producing sections, vying with or very likely surpassing Java in that respect. At present there is only one plantation in the Sulu Archipelago, embracing seventy acres and about 35,000 trees. It is located near Jolo and is owned by a family of Germans named Schuck, who have intermarried with the natives. One of the brothers, Mr. Charles Schuck, is the government interpreter, and his picture is given in a group of notables on page 768. Here the berries ripen all the year round, so that the ripe fruit and the white blossoms are always seen together on the trees, and the harvest never ceases. In Luzon, however, there is but one crop annually.
The coffee industry has been so fully treated in the departments relating to Cuba, Porto Rico and Hawaii, that it would
stream deposits now deserted by the current. These last are called a alluvionesa by the Spaniards. It is said that in Mindanao some of the gravels are in an elevated position and adapted to hydraulic mining. There are no data at hand which indicate decisively the value of any of the placers. They are washed by natives largely with cocoanut shells for pans, though the batea is also in use.
In the province of Abra, at the northern end of Luzon, there are placers, and the gravel of the river Abra is auriferous. In Lapanto there are gold quartz veins, as well as gravels. Gold is obtained in this province close to the copper mines. In Benguet the gravels of the river Agno carry gold. There is also gold in the province of Bontoc and in Nueva Icija. The most important of the auriferous provinces is Camarines Norte. Here the townships of Mambulao, Paracale and Labo are especially well known as gold-producing localities. At Paracale there are parallel quartz veins in granite, one of which is twenty feet in width and contains a chute in which the ore is said to assay thirty-eight ounces of
CERVANTES SQUARE, NEW MANILA.
In Manila, as in the towns of Porto Rico, the well-to-do classes occupy the upper stories of the houses, while the working classes live on the ground floor.
weary the reader to repeat the same information here. The climate and conditions in all of these islands are very similar, and it is probable that they will at no distant date produce nearly all the coffee consumed in the United States, which it is said averages more than eleven pounds per annum for each man, woman and child.
Sugar cane grows luxuriantly in the Philippine Islands, and the quality is as fine as can be produced in any part of the world. The best quality of sugar is made from the violet-colored cane that grows in the central parts of Negros Island. There are but few sugar plantations in the islands, and these are by 110 means extensive; yet the people consume vast quantities of sweets, and the home market is large.
Gold is found in a number of localities in the archipelago, from Northern Luzon to Central Mindanao. In most cases the gold is detrital, and found either in existing watercourses or in
gold per ton. One may suspect that this assay hardly represented an average sample. Besides the localities mentioned, many others of this province have been worked by the natives.
The islands of Mindoro, Catanduanes, Sibuyan, Samar, Panay, Zebu and Bohol are reported to contain gold, but 110 exact data are accessible.
At the south end of the small island of Panaon, which is just to the south of Leyte, there are gold quartz veins, one of which has been worked to some extent. It is six feet in thickness, and has yielded from $6 to $7 per ton.
In the island of Mindanao there are two known gold-bearing districts. One of these is the province of Surigao, where Placer and other townships show gravels and veins. The second district is in the province of Misamis. Near the settlement of Imponan and on the gulf of Macajalar there are said to be many square kilometers of gravel carrying large quantities of gold with which