or Miaotzu, although these can hardly be said to belong to the Chingpaw group, and are mentioned only because in the census their number is estimated at 16,732, whereas the true population would probably be more truly represented by such a number doubled. They seemed to have had a confederation of their own, within Chinese jurisdiction, until 1887, since when they have settled in British territory in increasing numbers.
The Karens.aAmong all the races of Burma of inferior importance, or termed wild or semi-barbarous, none has excited greater interest throughout the English-speaking world than the Karens, thanks to the efforts of the American missionaries, who have so successfully laboured to bring them, or at least a large division of them, under Christian influences. The readiness displayed by the so-called White Karens of the Pegu-Toungoo and other districts to welcome the tenets of Christianity is the more striking from the contrast of utter indifference displayed by the other races of Burma towards missionary effort. The Karens, who numbered 727,255 according to the census of 1901, are divided into three great families : the Sgaw, the Pwo, and the Bghai, or Bvve, the Pwo numbering 174,070, the Sgaw 86,434, and the Bwe 49,360, the remainder, who belong for the greater part to the last division, being returned as unspecified. The Taungthu or Pao, who form half the population of the Myelat in the Shan States, are also to be found in the Thaton district, and are certainly Karen, probably of the Pwo tribe, though dressing more like Shans. They number 160,436, and thus bring the Karen population close 011 to a million. There is no sufficient data for stating the exact origin of the Karens, who are divided nto White Karens and Red Karens. But judging from their superstitious observances, religious practices, their general manners and customs, and their linguistic affinities to other well-known branches of the human family, one may conjecture, with some degree of assurance, that they belong to some migratory Mongolian tribe which spread itself southward from China. The Burmese regard the Karens, whom they call Kayen, as the aborigines of the country, because they found them there when they first took possession Af it.* They are identical with the Carians, whom Sangermano describes as a good, peaceable people, who live dispersed throughout the forests of Pegu in small
* Dr. Mason, on the other hand, quotes a tradition in Proof of the Karens having emigrated from China and settled in the Shan States, on their way to their present seat, some centuries after the Christian era, and long after the Burmese and Talaings hid ojjupiei Bir.n 1.
villages.a According to Colonel McMahon, the author of the a Karens of the Golden Chersonese,a the Buddhist Bishop of Toungoo, whom he knew, suggested that a Karen a is derived from a Pali word meaning a dirty-feeders a or people of inferior caste. But whatever the origin of the name, it is evident they were referred to in the Maha-raza Weng and known as Kanran, or
Kanyan, or Keyin according to the Burmese pronunciation. Like Sangermano, Mrs. Jud-son, the well-known American missionaryas wife, wrote of them in her day as a a meek, peaceful race, simple and credulous, with many of the softer virtues and few flagrant vices. Though greatly addicted to drunkenness, extremely filthy and indolent in theii habits, their morals in other respects are
superior to many more civilised races.a That description is even now sufficiently accurate, when speaking of the present-day Sgaws and Pwos of the Tenasserim coast, the delta of the Irrawaddy, and the alluvial plains of Pegu. Owing perhaps to long oppression under Burmese domination, the mild Sgaws and Pwos offer a strong contrast to the Bghai or Bvves, who boast, with some
reason, of having ever defied the utmost efforts of the Burmese to conquer them. With all their differences in many ways, Colonel McMahon asserts that the various tribes have many points in common which allow us to speak of them as a homogenous whole, but in the very characteristic which admits of this deduction, we find them contrasting still more strongly with the Bur-