The Chingpaw dans.
The Kuki-Chin dans.
The Siamese-Chinese Sub-family :a
The Tai or Shan dans.
The Karen dans.
The Mon-Hkmer Sub-family :a
The Mon or Talaing clans.
The Wa Rumai clans.
The Burmese/aThe linguistic ascendancy of the Burmese, the race or nation whom conquering Alompra, the Wallace and Bruce of Burma, welded into an empire, may be estimated by the fact that out of a population of 10,490,624 given in the last census of
1901, the number of people ordinarily speaking Burmese is set down by the editors of the Census Report for India at 7,474,896, or, including the speakers of Mru, 7,498,794.
The divergencies of language between the Arakanese and Burmese, which appear to give eacli the status of a separate language, are due to the natural barrier formed by the long range of mountains running north and south, which renders intercourse between the people difficult. The proximity of Chittagong, and the greater opportunities for intercourse with the outer world which a coast line no doubt presents, would also affect in time the speech and ethnical features of Arakan, while the presence on the north-west and west of Burma of the Shans would similarly bring about changes in those localities and make the divergencies in the two peoples more pronounced as time went on. But with all these mutations the racial type and physiognomy betray the original Tartar stock. The Burman, the Arakanese, and the Talaing are own brothers of the Bhootea or the Goorkha of Nepal. Dressed similarly, say in police uniform, it would be difficult to tell the difference between them, unless by their speech, so alike do these representatives of the Tibeto-Mongoloid races remain in feature, even after a separation of many centuries.
A distinguishing feature between the Arakanese and other Burmese is the use by the former of the consonant a R.a In the Burmese language it is absent or rather pronounced like aYa ; for what the native of Arakan would call Roma is expressed by the Burman as Yoma (a mountain). The earliest Burmese settlers at Tagoung (ruby mines district), Sir George Scott thinks, favoured the custom which exists to this day among the Chingpaw (Kachins) and the Manipuries, whereby the youngest son succeeded to the family estate. This peculiarity explains the reason of the elder son of the founder of
* Under this heading may now be classed the Burmese, the Talaing, and the Arakanese, who are now merged into Ane people under the generic designation of Burmese.
the Tagoung dynasty going off to found the kingdom of Arakan, while the younger son is stated to have remained behind and reigned over Tagoung. The Arakanese consequently claim to be the elder brothers of the Burmese, though that proves nothing, except that they came from the same Burmese stock, and that Arakanese probably bears the closest resemblance to the ancient tongue of the race. It is believed to be also the parent tongue of the so-called Tavoyan, Chaingtha, and Yabein. The Tavoyans are said to be the descendants of a colony from Arakan, and the Inthas (sons of the lake), who live round the Yawnghwe Lake, have a tradition that they migrated from Tavoy and are, therefore, of Arakanese origin. The Chaingthas (sons of the stream) of Akyab
and the Arakan Hill Tracts similarly show their close alliance with the Arakanese by talking a variety of Arakanese, reminiscent of their neighbours or part progenitors in the Arakan Yomas. Other offshoots of Arakanese origin are the Yabeins, the Yaws of the Pakoku district, the Taungyo, and the Danu, who live in the Myelat or Shan States, and the Kadu in the Katha and Mogoung districts, the latter numbering some sixteen to seventeen thousand. It has been decided, we are told by Dr. Grierson, to classify the Mru as belonging to the Burmese group with a language spoken in an archaic form. The Mru live in the Akyab district and Arakan Hill Tracts and according to the last census numbered 13,414* Their language
had long been regarded as a variety of the Chin.
The Chins. In the Burma census report Chin ethnology is dismissed with the remark that the Chins or Kyins are a group of hill tribes all talking various dialects of the same Tibeto-Burmese speech and calling themselves by various names. Mr. B. Carey of the Burma Commission, in his work on the Chin Hills, says: aWithout pretending to speak with authority on the subject, we think we may reasonably accept the theory that the Kukis of Manipur, the Lushais of Bengal and Assam, and the Chins, originally lived in what we know as Tibet and are one and the same stock. The form of government, method of cultivation, manners, customs, belief, and traditions, all point to
one origin.a From available records it would seem that some authorities class the Nagas as closely akin to the Kukis; but this is more than doubtful. The government of the Naga tribes is distinctly democratic. The chieftainship does not pass from father to son, but is practically dependent on the will of the tribesmen. The Kuki chiefs, on the other hand, invariably inherit their position by right of birth, and take the initiative in all matters concerning their clansmen, by whom they are respected and feared. Naga methods of cultivation are different and in a more advanced state than the primitive jhooming of the Kukis. The latter do not recognise the generic appellation of Chin, said to be the Burmese corruption
A BURMESE LADY.A BURMESE LADY.