a mere speck of sand on the waste of waters. Dr. Grierson thinks they were of the same stock as the progenitors of the great Munda race, also of some of the tribes now found on the Australian continent. Local traditions, taken with ethnology, and philology, prove that the first invading host was that of the Mon-Hkmer sub-family. These were followed by a wave of Tibeto-Burmese, who drove their predecessors before themamany up into the hills, more still over the borders of the province altogether, into Siam and Cambodia. Upon these warring bands there
ducing, a of all these races the Biamma or Tibeto-Burmese, have left the most evident traces of themselves and their origin, their course being marked, like the trail of the paper-chase, by affiliated tribes that occupy the sub-Himalayan region from the Gandak River in Western Nipal, to the basin of the Irrawaddy and beyond. Quarrelsome as sparrows, they fought with one another all the way down through the years, and for years and years they fought mercilessly with the people they found in the country before them. To all seeming they made their first
by the Hkmer in constant conflict with their blood relations the Mon, and remoter kindred the Burmese. But the Mon-Hkmer were finally subdued, and the Tibeto-Burmese not only occupy a vastly greater extent of country, but are a much superior factor in the politics of Farther India. Neither the Mon nor the Hkmer traditions give any account of their first migrations. The tales of the Burmese, the Shans, and the Karens do, and these all bear out the theory that the Mon-Hkmer preceded them.a Sir George holds, therefore, and not unnaturally, that
GROUP OF WILD TRIBES CHIEFLY FROM SOUTHERN SHAN STATES.
Front RowaChiefly Yaos, Akhas, Padaungs, and Yam lams. CentreaTaungthus, Yabein, Taungyos, and Was.
came down finally the peoples of the Siamese-Chinese sub-familyathe Karens and the Tai or Shansawho crushed and thrust and wedged themselves in wherever they might. The trend southward was continued over centuries, and, indeed, the last irruption from the hiving northathat of the Chingpawawas only stopped by the British occupation of the country.a According to the graphic description of the same writer, whose views are worth repro-
appearance in the Irrawaddy Valley about 600 B.C. Forbes and Garnier unite in the conclusion that in the earlier ages kindred tribes of the Mon-Hkmer dominated the whole country from the Irrawaddy eastward to the China Seas, and, till they were split by the Tai invaders, the whole of the territories from the Salween down to the shores of the Gulf of Siam, and over to the Chinese-ridden Annamese and Tonkinese were dominated
with the exception of the Selung, all the races of Burma are of the same original stock, all more or less distantly related and connected. The following are, according to the same authority, the three sub-families among whom animosity has been the more bitter and prolonged in proportion to the closeness of their relationship.
The Tibeto-Burmese Sub-family :a
The Burmese clans.The Burmese clans.