a British resident or political agent was always to be posted at Mandalay and was to be invested with full and final jurisdiction in all suits between British subjects; civil cases arising between British and Burmese subjects were to be dealt with in a mixed court where the British Resident would be associated with a high Burmese official as judge; further, rules were laid down for the extradition of criminals on either side.
The treaty was a great advance on the earlier arrangement. Its concessions, indeed, were so important that it was a matter for surprise at the time that the King had been induced to make them. The explanation probably is that His Majesty had had a severe fright over the revolutionary movement, and was anxious to make friends with the British in order to have some one to lean upon in case of a fresh rising. His conversation with the envoy appeared to be
coloured by a desire to obtain steamers for defensive purposes and arms for ten thousand troops. Doubtless he was aware that he could not obtain these ends without giving a quid pro quo in the shape of concessions, both political and trading. It is certain that his change of front was not due to any new-born love of the British, or, as Lieut.-General Fytche seemed to think, to any special leaning towards the envoy who negotiated the treaty. The arrangement was, there can be little doubt, regarded by the King in the light of an insurance policy. He wanted to make sure of his position, and experience had taught him that he could only do this by making terms with the stranger at his gate.
Lieut.-General Fytche was very favourably impressed with the King. He described him as a one of the most enlightened monarchs
that has ever sat on the Burmese throne,a as abeing polished in his manner, having considerable knowledge of the affairs of State and the history and statistics of his own and other countries,a and as being in his personal character aamiable and kind, and, according to his light, religious.a When a child His Majesty had been known as Moung-Lwon, and as a prince bore the title of Mengdon-mengtha, the name being derived from a town and district which were his patrimony. When he ascended the throne he was known by his royal titles only. These were particularly long, even judged by the standard of Oriental Court etiquette. Thus he was styled a His Most Glorious and Excellent Majesty, Lord of the Tshaddau, King of Elephants, Master of many White Elephants, Lord of the mines of gold, silver, rubies, amber, and the noble serpentine, Sovereign of the Empires of Thuna-paranta and Tampadipa,
and other great empires and countries, and of all the umbrella wearing chiefs, the Supporter of Religion, the Sun-descended Monarch, Arbiter of Life and Great King of Righteousness, King of Kings, and Possessor of boundless dominion and Supreme Wisdom.a King Mengdonas virtues were hardly so superlative as Lieut.-General Fytche in the excess of his enthusiasm described them. Nor was he quite such a good friend of the British as the Chief Commissioner was pleased to paint him. However, the treaty for the time being aserved.a Its almost immediate effect was to give a great stimulus to trade with Upper Burma. One of Lieut.-General Fytcheas pre-occupations on his return to Rangoon was the equipment of an expedition lo Bhamo in accordance with the arrangement made with the King. The utmost importance was attached at the moment to the exploration
and opening up of this route to British trade. It was known that from time immemorial caravans had passed to and from Burma and Western China by this road, and though for some years prior to the conclusion of the Anglo-Burmese treaty the trade had almost completely stopped, it was confidently believed that there would be little difficulty in establishing a lucrative interchange of commodities between British and Chinese merchants by way of Bhamo. The Government of India gave their assent to the despatch of the expedition in September, 1867, and Colonel B. Sladen, the British Resident at the Burmese Court, an experienced official well versed in Burmese manners and customs, was chosen to lead it. Quitting Mandalay in the middle of January, 1868, the expedition, which comprised besides Colonel Sladen, Dr. John Anderson (who subsequently wrote an interesting account of the enterprise), Captain Williams, and several representatives of the Rangoon commercial community, made a satisfactory voyage up the river. Before leaving Mandalay, Colonel Sladen had been assured by the Burmese officials that it would be impossible for the steamer to ascend the Irrawaddy so far north as Bhamo ; but that centre was reached without any difficulty 011 January 22. After this the Burmese officials became obstructive and even hostile. They evidently had been greatly disturbed at the successful progress of the expedition and meant if possible to prevent the travellers from proceeding further up stream. Colonel Sladen, however, was not a man to be easily thwarted. Taking his courage in his hands he opened up communications with the Panthay (Mahomedan) Commander at the Yunnan frontier town of Momein. The move, though a bold one, proved successful. After a variety of adventures the party, on May 26, arrived in sight of the walls of Momein. Colonel Sladen speedily found that nothing very practical for the time being could be done. The Chinese and Burmese were both opposed to his mission, and did all they could to frustrate its aims. This obstructiveness, added to the disturbed condition of the country arising out of the irruption of bands of rebel Chinese, led Colonel Sladen to the conclusion that he could not with profit pursue his operations further. On July 13 the mission commenced its return journey. Its course down stream was marked by several adventures, but ultimately Mandalay was reached in safety. The expedition greatly enlarged the public knowledge of the important region abutting on the Chinese frontier, and it paved the way for the development of what promised to be a lucrative trade in
HEWZADA FROM THE STEAMER.
(From aViews and Sketches in Burma.a)(From a Views and Sketches in Burma.a )