which means the sheltering or protecting lord. The other two titles are Burmese. Myoza means a town-eater,a and Ngwekunhmu is the silver tribute chieftain. Under the political officer of the Southern Shan States are also the Sawbwa of Eastern Karen-ni and the four Myozas of the Western Karen country. The headquarters of the Southern Shan States are at Taunggyi, and Lashio, at the terminus of the so-called Mandalay-Kun-long railway, is the town from which the Northern States are administered.
The States vary a very great deal in size, the great trans-Salween State of Kengtung is by very much the largest, its area has been estimated at 12,000 square miles, but as an exact map is only now being prepared by the Survey of India, it may be more or less
more people than many miles of wooded or rocky hills.
The richest State is Hsipaw, which has a rapidly increasing revenue, amounting now to between A25,000 and A30,000. Yawnghwe, in the Southern Shan States, comes next with about half this amount. The great State of Kengtung, with its wilderness of hills, does not reach A10,000. Tawngpeng, the tea-growing state, is the only other which reaches nearly A10,000 a year. Of the others, seven have A2,000 a year or more ; seven exceed A1,000 a year ; nine have more than A$00 revenue, and fifteen do not reach that figure. The only State that does not reach A100 a year revenue is Namtok. The amount of tribute claimed by Government is roughly one third of the gross revenue. This gives
GARDEN PARTY AT TAUNGGYI.
Southern and Northern Shan States charges. There are thirty-eight Southern Shan States and five Northern. The Wa States belong technically to the Northern Shan States charge, but, like the Northern Kachin Hill tracts, are as yet unadministered, and have been very seldom visited. The five states of Karen-ni are under the control of the officer in charge of the Southern Shan States. Unlike the Shan States, however, they are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States or in any other parts of the province. The Superintendent of the Southern Shan States, however, controls the election of chiefs and the appointment of officials and has the power of revising cases, besides generally influencing the administration of the five states. These are all small except Gantara-wadi, or Eastern Karen-ni, which covers
3,500 square miles, against the united area i33o square miles of the other four.
The Shan chiefs are of three grades, a classification which we have inherited from the Burmese. These are (1) Sawbwas, (2) Myozas, and (3) Ngwegunhmus. The latter class are chiefs of the Myelat, the borderland between Burma and the Shan States proper. The Shans recognise only one title for chiefs: Saohpa, but there were great Saohpas and little Saohpas. The titles have no relation to the area or population governed by the chiefs. Thus the Yengan Ngwegunhmu possesses a good many more square miles than the Sawbwas of either Mong Pawn or Samka, though neither his population nor his revenue are so great. The Myoza of Mongkiing practically equals the Yawnghwe Sawbwa in extent of acres, but his revenue is five times less, though he has more than twice the population of the Sawbwa of Mong Pawn, and nearly six thousand more than Lawksawk, which has considerably over twice the number of square miles. These apparent discrepancies are due to the fact that we accepted the titles existing at the time of the annexation. Many comparatively minor chiefs then had high titles, because of their age, or because they had pretty sisters, or daughters in the Palace at Mandalay. A few Sawbwas have been created by the British Government since the annexation, and quite a fair number of Myozas, but this has been due to personal merit, rather than to large possessions or big revenues.
All the chiefs in the Northern Shan States are Sawbwas. In the Southern Shan States there are few Sawbwas, with eighteen Myozas and ten Ngwegunhmus. Sawbwa is the Burmanised form of the Tai Saohpa,
than this figure, which implies that it is the same size as Belgium. The next largest state is North Hsenwi, which has an area of 6,330 square miles, or within about a 1,000 square miles of gallant little Wales. The third is Hsipaw with its independent States, which cover 4,524 square miles. On the other hand some of the Ngwegunhmusa States are not much bigger than a large estate. Namtok has no more than 20 square miles, and Kyong only exceeds this by four square miles. The Myoza of Nawngwawn owns 42 square miles, and the Myoza of Mawnang two less, while the Red Karen Myoza of Nawngpalai has no more than thirty. The character of the country has a great deal of influence in the matter. A few miles of wet rice land are worth very much more and support far
the impression that the country is a poor one, but it is quite wrong. It was not a poor country in the past, until Burmese mis-rule and civil wars brought about nearly complete ruin. Under British rule the country is slowly recovering, but want of population and, above all, want of cheap means of transport, make progress wearisomely slow.
We have taken the name Shan from the Burmese. Where they got it from, neither they, nor the Shans, nor anybody else knows. The people everywhere call themselves generally Tai, but they have a quite bewildering number of other names given to them by themselves and other people. Dr. Grierson says Shan is obviously Siam, but the name Siam is another problem. It is not known to the Siamese themselves, and only appears,We have taken the name Shan from the Burmese. Where they got it from, neither they, nor the Shans, nor anybody else knows. The people everywhere call themselves generally Tai, but they have a quite bewildering number of other names given to them by themselves and other people. Dr. Grierson says Shan is obviously Siam, but the name Siam is another problem. It is not known to the Siamese themselves, and only appears,