to be the shrine of the jawbone of the Buddha, which was built by one of the ancient Arakanese kings. At any rate it has no connection with the name given to the town by the Arakanese, a Sit-twe aa a when the war began.a
The town is somewhat peculiarly situated, for the well-wooded, low-lying ground between the sea-face and the Kaladan on which it has been built is really an island, triangular in shape, and about five square miles in extent. It is cut off from the mainland by a creek which connects the Kaladan River on the east with the estuary of the Mayu River on the west, and is open on the south and south-west to the Bay of Bengal. The Kaladan, as it flows down from the north to the sea, opens out into an ample roadstead. Few better natural harbours exist: along the coast of Burma, for though it is open to the south-west, it is largely protected from the fierceness of the monsoons by the Baronga and the Savage Islands. The harbour, which is provided with an iron wharf, a small stone pier, and several wooden jetties, has an outer and an inner bar. During high tide vessels of any draught can safely enter, but at low water a pilot is necessary.
The European residences are practically all built along the eastern shore of the harbour. This quarter, in which great improvements have been made of late years at considerable cost, is well laid out, and is isolated from the native quarter of the town. There are extensive public buildings in Akyab, chief of which is the Government offices. The second-class district gaol, which has accommodation for 489 prisoners, also covers a large area of ground. In this institution there was an extremely serious mutiny of the prisoners in 1892, when the European gaoler in charge was cruelly murdered by the convicts. The general hospital is an imposing structure, and contains 114 beds. Attached to it is the Shwebya dispensary, in which some six or seven thousand persons receive treatment each year, and a hospital for European sailors. This latter was erected in 1902, mainly from the accumulation of Sunday labour fees levied at the port. The main support for the hospital and the dispensary comes from the municipality, indeed in 1903 Rs. 14,500 out of a total expenditure of Rs. 17,000 were provided out of the rates. From the municipality funds, also, about Rs. 6,000 are annually expended on the upkeep of the High School, which has upwards Af 37o pupils. This represents about one quarter of the total expenditure, the remainder being met by school fees and from contributions from the funds of the district
and the province. There are both Anglican and Roman Catholic churches, and in connection with the latter there is a convent and a school.
Though the European population in Akyab is not very large, the inhabitants as a whole would not allow the two jubilees of the late Queen Victoria to pass without the ereclion of some fitting mementoes. Thus, at the Golden Jubilee of 1887, the tribute took the form of a handsome and useful clock-tower. The Diamond Jubilee of 1897 was commemorated by the erection of a race-stand.
The mills and factories in the town number fourteen, of which eleven are rice-mills, two of the remainder being tanneries and the other a saw-mill. Five of the rice-mills turn out white rice and the remainder what is known as cargo rice. The shortcoming of
these rice-mills, in their relation to labour, is that most of them close their doors in the slack season, that is to say from May to December. The labour question has been further accentuated of recent years by the fact that an increasing quantity of rice has been exported in the husk. The greater part of the rice business here, as elsewhere in Burma, is carried on by natives of India.
It was in 1884 that Akyab was created a municipality, with a municipal committee consisting of a president, vice-president, and fifteen members. Under the arrangement upon which the municipality is founded the Deputy Commissioner is the president of the committee, and the vice-president's chair is filled by the civil surgeon. The income and
expenditure of the municipality amounts to about one and a half lakhs of rupees annually. An extensive waterworks scheme has recently been completed. Rainwaterathe annual rainfall in this district is about 200 inchesais caught in a large artificial reservoir which is situated about three and a half miles out of the town. From here it is distributed throughout the town in over nine miles of steel mains and pipes. The roads of Akyab are on the whole good, and are rendered the more pleasant and picturesque by fine avenues of trees.
Akyab is not what can be termed an healthy town, in fact in the aImperial Gazetteera it is stated that it is asubject to regular epidemics of cholera as well as to malarial fever, which formerly earned for it the not altogether unmerited sobriquet of the a white manas grave.a a It has, however, so far
escaped the ravages of plague, and every effort has been taken to prevent the introduction and spread of this dread disease by the improvement of the sanitary conditions of the locality.
Unfortunately it has not yet been found possible to establish railway communications between Akyab and the other towns of Burma, though a weekly steamer service between Akyab and Calcutta and Rangoon is kept up by the British India Steam Navigation Company.
LIEUT.-COLONEL WILLIAM ALEXANDER WICKEDE STRICKLAND was appointed Commissioner of the Arakan division, the head-
BAZAAR AND PIER, AKYAB.BAZAAR AND PIER, AKYAB.