370 TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF BURMA.
were received in state twice a year by the king and queen remains, and until recently was used as a part of the Upper Burma Club.
aThe four great drums and bells placed at the principal gates of the city and used for striking the hours of the day and night were made of different kinds of wood. That at the eastern gate was of teak ; the one in the south of pauk ; the western one of thitmyizu ; and the northern one of mango-wood. In addition to these, another drum, called the mingala min-kya was suspended in a spiral-roof shed before the eastern front of the palace, just inside the Red Gate. This was only sounded when the king went out in state. The drum known as baho-si was placed between four white posts outside the Ywe-daw-yu gate of
the palace yard. The official in charge always wore state robes, and it was the striking of this drum which gave the time to those at the gates. The embankment, built to prevent the water from flooding the land west of the Shwetachaung, also, in King Thebawas opinion, protected Mandalay from foreign enemies and placed the palace beyond the reach of cannon shots, as by it vessels were prevented from coming up the canal as in times of flood they were formerly able to do. With the completion of this embankment or outer rampart in 1875, King Mengdonas dream was wholly fulfilled, and, as one local historian remarks, a it is worthy of note that he died shortly afterwards.a a
Mengdonas reign was peaceful, except for an attempt at rebellion by his son, the Myingun prince, who in 1866 killed the heir-apparent
and eventually fled to Rangoon. Mengdon was succeeded in 1878 by his son Thebaw, the history of whose reign is one of palace intrigue varied by massacre. a A year after his accession,a to quote again from the u Imperial Gazetter,a aabout eighty of his kindredamen, women, and childrenawere murdered in the palace precincts and their bodies thrown into a trench. In 1884 occurred a further massacre of about two hundred persons suspected of being concerned in a plot on behalf of the Myingun prince. In 1885 came the rupture with the British ; an expeditionary force was dispatched into Upper Burma, and towards the end of November of that year General Prendergastas flotilla appeared off Mandalay. No resistance was offered, and the king re-
ceived Colonel Sladen in a summer-house in the palace grounds and formally surrendered himself. For some months after this, dacoities and robberies were frequent in and about Mandalay, but the town was eventually reduced to order. About a tenth of the urban area was burnt down during the hot season of 1886, and in August of that year an abnormally high flood burst the embankment built by King Mengdon and cost some loss of property.a
Mandalay was built in square blocks, and during the kingas reign high officials and other notabilities had their dwellings in the centre of each of these plots, the outer portions being occupied by the huts of their followers and dependents, or by petty traders and shop-keepers. No one was allowed to erect any buildings of value, so that visitors years
ago described the town as a collection of huts. Matters have improved considerably since the British occupation. The dilapidated hovels have given place in many instances to substantial brick houses, and the well laid out cantonments and fine buildings in the European quarters, including the public offices and private residences, testify to the good effects of British rule. Immediately after the occupation, a provisional administration was constituted. All the members of the Hlutdaw professed themselves willing to take part in the government of the country under the guidance of Col. Sladen, and the Council at once issued proclamations ordering the old officials to continue in the performance of their regular duties. On December 15, 1885, the Chief Commissioner, Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles) Bernard arrived in Mandalay and assumed charge of the Civil Administration, and the town and district of Mandalay were removed from the control of the Council, and placed under a Deputy-Commissioner. On January 1, 1886, Upper Burma was proclaimed part of the British Dominions, and placed under the direct administration of the Viceroy, and Mandalay town then came under the control of a District Superintendent of Police, who was assisted in his duties by two Myo-wuns, the town magistrates of Burmese times. In 1887 a Municipal Committee was formed, and the metalling of the main roads taken in hand, a telephone system was introduced; and a town survey partly carried out. No one visiting Mandalay now would recognise it as the ill-kept and squalid native city of twenty-five years ago. While trade may be stagnant and the prospects for the future unpromising, there is no doubt from the point of view of improved sanitation and municipal administration great progress has been made. The sixty miles of metalled roadways within the municipal boundaries are well lighted and kept in good order, and the drainage has been much improved, and miles of pucca drains constructed. Avenues of shade trees have been planted in a soil very unfavourable for aboriculture ; the old Zegyo bazaar has been replaced by a modern structure costing the Municipality about eleven lakhs of rupees, and an electric tramway, which now runs in three directions, with the Zegyo as the centre, to the Arakan Pagoda, the a Shore a and to the Courts, two miles each way, has been in existence since July, 1904, when it was formally opened by the then Lieut.-Governor, Sir Hugh Barnes. A large general hospital has been maintained for many years, and recently has cost the Municipality over a lakh of rupees a year. The hospital, however, is not for
ZEGYO MARKET.ZEGYO MARKET.