prison offence is entitled to fifteen days ordinary remission, in addition to any other remission he may have earned. To any prisoner, whether habitual or casual, who has rendered some special service, the superintendent of the gaol may award special remission to an amount not exceeding thirty days in one year, and the Inspector-General of Prisons to an amount not exceeding sixty days in one yearabut the total remission awarded to a prisoner does not, without the special sanction of the Local Government, exceed one-fourth part of his sentence.
Every convict undergoing a sentence of two years or upwards is taught a trade, if he is not already a skilled workman. The shops at the Rangoon gaol, for example, present a
most interesting sight. In the gaol printing press, where work for the several departments of Government is done, are machines of the latest pattern, from which the work is turned out rapidly. In the same block the younger convicts are engaged in folding and binding. Some of the carpentiy and carving executed in the gaol is especially skilful. Convicts in separate confinement are usually put on oil-pressing, one of the hardest tasks which can be given. Men in solitary cells are put to pick cocoanut fibre. The prisoners in the Burma gaols are weighed fortnightly, and it says much for the advantage of a regular life that quite sixty per cent, of them leave the gaols in better condition than when they were admitted.
Female prisoners in Burma are strictly separated from male prisoners. The female wards are so situated as not to be overlooked by any part of the male gaol. In gaols to which females are admitted, there is a separate hospital for sick female prisoners within or directly adjoining the female enclosure. Taking the figures for the year 1908, the percentage of the female to the whole gaol population was 3'5, i.e., 7 women to every 200 males.
Convicts who have received a life sentence, who are between 18 and 40 years of age, and who are fit lor hard labour, are transported to the convict settlement at Port Blair. I11 1908, eighty-five such convicts were sent from Burma, and in 1907 the
number was 102. Certain of the Asiatic line of steamers have been fitted up for their transport, and the prisoners are ordinarily removed in batches, not exceeding fifteen at a time. Life at Port Blair is said to be much more free than it is in the gaols for, after a probationary period of confinement in the settlement, the prisoners are provided with small houses and practically become free men. Many of them are given tracts of land to cultivate at their own discretion and some are employed as servants by the local officials. Under certain conditions, marriage amongst the convicts at Port Blair is allowed, though the proportion of men to women is something like 25,000 to 300, and the offspring from these marriages generally re-
main upon the island, where they are employed as clerks, petty officers, and c. Certain prisonersathugs, men who have committed robberies after administering poison to their victims, or professional, hereditary, or specially dangerous criminals convicted of organised crime, such as dacoity a who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life, are never released from Port Blair. Other life convicts, after completing twenty to twenty-five years, as the case may be, less remission earned, are permitted to return to their native homes, but it sometimes happens that they apply for and obtain permission to settle down in Port Blair.
A scheme is under consideration for the introduction of the Borstal system at the Meiktila gaol, which is exclusively set apart for the confinement of juvenile prisoners under eighteen years of age. The system has, of course, to be modified to suit local conditions.
A few words about the health of prisoners in the Burma gaols will not be out of place. The number of prisoners admitted to hospital, and the death rate declined from 87570 and 2878 per thousand respectively in 1894, to 27684 and 13*27 per thousand in 1908, during which year the death rate for the free population was 28*22 per thousand. Since the introduction of anti-malarial measures in 1903, and the systematic issue from 1904, of two 10-grain doses of quinine per week to each prisoner, wrho had suffered from malaria, the admissions and deaths from this disease dropped from 125*37 and 0*56 in 1903, to 35*77 and 0*46 respectively per mille in
1908. It cannot be gainsaid that such remarkably good results could never have been obtained if the prisoners confined in the gaols of this province were not carefully looked after.
The gross cost of maintenance of prisons in Burma increased from Rs. 8,09,401 in 1907 to Rs. 9,34,055 in 1908, and the average cost per prisoner rose from Rs. 58.15.10 in
1907 to Rs. 67.5.5 in 1908. Deducting the cash earnings of prisoners from the gross cost of maintenance, the net cost of the Burma Prison Administration was Rs. 7,22,760.7.0 in
1908 against Rs. 6,22,217.8.0 in 1907, or Rs. 52.1.0 per head of the average number of prisoners in 1908 against Rs. 45.6.0 in the year 1907. The average cost of dieting a prisoner per annum was Rs. 29.6.11 in 1908 compared with Rs. 23.1.6 in 1907. These figures may be taken as indicating how economically and efficiently the Prison Department is administered in Burma.
PRISONERS AT WORKaBOOKBINDING DEPARTMENT.PRISONERS AT WORKa BOOKBINDING DEPARTMENT.