TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF BURMA.
body, in a manner that could not be approached were the organisation based on traditions and methods natural to a body of civil medical practitioners. It has always
been to the credit of the Indian Medical Service, in the progress of conquest in the East, that it has rendered aid alike to friend and foe ; and that, as a result of the kindly methods and skill of its members amongst the people, even when war is in progress, much help has always been afforded to civil authorities in the process of pacification. Thus, in Burma there has been a constant tendency for medical officers with military outposts to place at disposal their aid for both in- and out-patients of the civil population. As the confidence of the people has grown, the demand for European medical methods has increased ; so that by the time it has been possible to remove the military from a station, there had been created an obvious necessity for a civil hospital. Practically, this may be said to be the history of origin of civil hospitals in Burma, so far as they are intended for Asiatics. On the other hand, accommodation for Europeans chiefly had its origin in ports where in days before the use of steamers, European sailing ships were at times laid up for months waiting for cargo ; and with the larger crew then used the necessity arose for systematic medical aid on shore. Many of the existing medical institutions in towns, therefore, are old native infantry hospitals that have been improved and modified, after being handed over to the civil authorities.
The recent efforts of medical science to meet the demand of modern asepsis, inter alia, by improved architecture, have necessarily been felt in Burma as elsewhere ; hence,
during late years, progress has been made in the construction of a better type of hospitals, and especially in the direction of bringing
up-to-date nursing annexes and operation rooms. At time of writing (1909) an important and reasonably up-to-date hospital for treatment of Asiatics and Europeans, afford-
ing 518 beds, is approaching completion in the town of Rangoon. The Civil Hospital at Maymyo has had added to it a new operation room block, surgical wards for Asiatics, and a block for European paying-patients. In the hospitals of Prome and Monywa, new operation rooms, and, in the case of the latter, a new out-patient department, are nearing completion. At Henzada and Mandalay new out-patient departments, new operation room blocks, and new surgical wards have been sanctioned. Tavoy and Mergui have completely new hospitals. Mandalay has a new ophthalmic block, whilst a few minor hospitals are in course of construction in the rural areas. The province is therefore endeavouring to keep pace with the times ; but, as is the case not only in other parts of India, but in Europe also, modern requirements for better structure of hospitals cannot be met otherwise than more or less gradually, owing to the large expenditure usually involved. In the meantime, the practical requirements of asepsis in treatment are rigidly followed in every hospital in the province ; and, to this end, a special annually recurring grant has been made available by Government for the distribution of modern equipment ; so that in this respect progress must be uninterrupted.
At the present time there is a total of 227 hospitals and dispensaries in thei province.
Of these 69 are classed as astate-public,a that is, they are maintained by provincial funds, and are under Government management for treatment of the general public.
MILITARY HOSPITAL, RANGOON.
DUFFERIN HOSPITAL, RANGOON.DUFFERIN HOSPITAL, RANGOON.