() Reserved Forests. Equivalent in
Acres. square miles.
Southern Circle (free of
privileges) ...... 3.292.584 5,145
Southern Circle (taungya
area)......... 149,338 233
Total free of privileges ...... 13,349,209 20,858
Total taungya and
Karen areas ... 459,450 718
Total reserved forests...... 13,808,659 21,576
() Protected Forests.
1899, the area of the reserved forests in the whole province had increased to 15,669 square miles. A word of explanation covering the ataungyaa areas is perhaps required. In the early days of forest reservation, the Government carried out teak-planting in an extensive and systematic manner. This, however, was found to be expensive, and gave way to the taungya system, by which villagers living in or near the reserves were induced to plant seeds in their taungyas and were paid a fixed sum annually for the trees found to be alive in their yas after their crops were reaped. From the villagers standpoint, at any rate, this has been a great success, but when the cost of fire protection and weeding are added to the expenses of
Southern Circle, and 21,095 *n the Southern Shan States and elsewhere. The leases granted by Government are subject to the extraction of a compulsory annual minimum quantity, and the forest officers, who are given very wide powers, have to see that the contracts are properly carried out. In addition, they are responsible for the collection of the revenue, and have to guard against the destruction of trees by animals, jungle fires, and taungya cutters.
The revenue drawn by the Government from lease holders is by way of duty or royalty on the weight of every tree extracted, varying, according to the quality and size of the wood, from Rs. 10 to Rs. 35 a ton of 50 cubic feet. A good deal of teaka
(c) Unclassed Forests.
Pegu Circle ...... 16,323,041 25,506
Tenasserim Circle 17,194,121 26,866
Northern Circle 15.096,938 23,589
Southern Circle 21,122,715 33,004
Total of Burma
Forests...... 83,546,414 130,540
In 1870-71 the whole of the State reserved forests were in the Rangoon Division, and covered no more than 133 square miles, and the total receipts were Rs. 7,72,400. By 1889-90 there were 5,574 square miles of reserved forests in Lower Burma, from which the gross revenue was Rs. 31,34,720, and the expenditure Rs. 13,31,930. In ten more years, that is to say by the end of
SCENES IN THE SHWE LEE FOREST.
the Government in this direction, it is found that the total outlay is very heavy.
When the timber on any stretch of land is ready for fellingaand the decision is left solely with the forest officersathe right of extraction is given out under permits 01* leases to some one or other of the numerous foresters and timber-merchants who carry on business in Burma. No indiscriminate felling is allowed, for no trees may be touched, excepting a windfalls a and a dead wood,a which have not been previously girdled or marked by the Forest Department. Such trees are usually from seven to eight feet in girth, though for various reasons smaller trees may sometimes be marked for felling. During the year 1907-8 the number of trees so a girdled a totalled 101,521a26,790 in the Tenasserim Circle, 21,613 in the Northern Circle, 32,023 in the
though the quantity is decreasing as the forests drained by the Salween are being worked outais flooded down the Salween to Moulmein from Siamese territory. It would be impossible for the Government to charge a royalty in the ordinary way upon this, so an ad valorem duty of 7 per cent, is substituted. The revenue station on the Salween river is at Kadoe, about eight miles above Moulmein. The revenue stations on the Irrawaddy are numerous. When logs are ready to be floated down, they are taken to the nearest station and classified by the forest officer, and duty is levied according to the category under which the logs fall, according to quality and size.
Generally speaking, the more southerly forests are largely denuded of their timber, and all are now under Government reservation. The tendency for forest operations toGenerally speaking, the more southerly forests are largely denuded of their timber, and all are now under Government reservation. The tendency for forest operations to