These were exceptionally fine tusks for an Indian elephant.
Two kinds of rhinoceros are found, viz., Rhinoceros sondaicus, one-horned rhinoceros, and Rhinoceros sumatrensis, the two-horned rhinoceros, a kyan.a Both varieties are inhabitants of heavy tree forest and ascend hills certainly to a height of 5,000 feet. I have also known R. sumatrensis to come down on the plains and enter elephant grass jungle, and not so long ago one was shot within thirty miles of Rangoon. R. Sondaicus, though not as large as the Indian variety, is quite a big animal, measuring 5 feet 6 inches or more at the shoulder. The skin is devoid of the large warty looking tubercles which are present in the Indian species ; it is divided up into shields, but in this variety the shield in front of the shoulders passes across the back as the one immediately behind does. The horn is absent in females. R. sumatrensis is very much smaller, the skin is granular and rough, and covered with a fair amount of hair. The folds in the skin are but faintly marked. There are two horns placed a little distance apart, the anterior horn being the longer. They measure a little over 4 feet at the shoulder. Rhinoceroses are shy retiring beasts. Their food consists of leaves, shoots and certain grasses. As a rule they feed in the morning and evening and lie up on the ridges during the heat of the day. In the hot season they may come down two or three times, to roll in mud holes or lie in shady pools. Their hearing and sense of smell appear to be very acute. Hunting arhinoa is real hard work; they live in such difficult country, and are such expert climbers. When wounded they are often very dangerous, and tracking a wounded animal over bad ground is trying work.
The tapir, which is the Malayan variety, is found only in Tenasserim. It is of a shy, retiring, and inoffensive disposition, and possessing nothing in the way of a trophy, it is rarely, if ever, disturbed by sportsmen.
Unfortunately, buffaloes are not nearly as plentiful as they were many years ago. The wild buffalo, Bos bubalns, a taw kywe a is now confined to a few districts. In one or two localities there are some fair herds, but many of these are said to be the decendants of tame buffaloes which escaped into the jungle during the expedition of
1885. Wild buffaloes are the most ferocious of the bovidae of (he East. Old bulls are
BURMESE TIGER (FELIS TIGRIS).
often found alone and are generally tough fellows to kill. The others move about in herds of varying number, inhabiting moist swampy jungle, where, during the day they lie up, spending the night, early mornings, and evenings grazing. Most people prefer to
give even tame buffaloes a wide berth, and this, perhaps, is not to be wondered at, for at times they are anything but well disposed towards intruders. As the buffaloes are to be found in the open, the hunter may rely upon an exciting time if the bull is not mortally wounded by the first shot.
The gaur, Indian bison, Bos gaurus, apyoung,a is the largest and most handsome of the ox tribe, standing sixteen to seventeen hands at the shoulder. Most sportsmen are naturally keen on shooting at least one of these grand animals, and perhaps bison stalking is the finest sport in Burma. They are distributed in suitable localities throughout the province. They appear to prefer heavy jungle and hilly country, though after the first few heavy thunderstorms and during the rains they may leave heavy forest cover and enter elephant grass jungle, from which they emerge during the early mornings and evenings to graze in the glades known as akurns.a They roam about in herds from a few members up to twenty or thirty. Solitary bulls, however, are common enough. The head of the gaur is short and massive, a marked feature being the frontal crest between the horns which arches forward. The bulls are a deep chestnut but the cows are of a much lighter colour. On the under surface of the neck and throat there is a good deal of long coarse hair; both sexes have white stockings. Bison when wounded often show fight and will charge in a very business-like manner. Quite recently I saw a cow elephant that had been charged and badly cut about the chest by one. The best head obtained in Burma was from an animal killed by wild dogs on the Salween, and picked up by Mr. Jardine. It is now in the museum of the Bombay Natural History Society. Its measurements were :a
Tip to tip. Inches. i8f
horn out- Circumference side Curve. at base.
39i ... 2oi ... i8f ... 43
aTsaing,a Bos sondaicus are a handsome race of cattle, standing 15 to 16 hands at the shoulder. They seem to prefer the flat and slightly hilly country, and generally avoid dense jungle. They live in herds, as do bison, and as many as thirty may be seen grazing together in a glade. They are generally very wary, and in my experience much more inclined to show fight when wounded than are bison. The head is well shaped ; the frontal crest is not developed, the forehead being in profile more convex than concave. The horns of young bulls are cylindrical, while those of old ones are flattened, and are directed outwards and upwards, then slightly backwards inclining towards the tips. In cows the horns are smaller and lighter, and are often wore or less lyrate in shape. Young bulls and cows are of a bright brown or chestnut colour ; old bulls are of a very much
As far as I am aware, wild specimens of
the Bos frontalis agayal,a amythuna or asha,a have not been shot in Burma. I am told that they exist and that two or more have been shot, but I did not see the heads nor hides, so cannot confirm the statement. The amythuna or ashaa may be seen enjoying a life of domestic peacefulness in the Chin Hills, Upper Burma, and the Arakan Hill-Tracts. They are fine large animals, in general appearance not unlike the gaur. In the hills many of the mythun are very tame, and some of the cows are milked. They are herded near or within villages. They are not used for any work, but often form the
price paid for a wife, and generally play a most important part in sacrifices and feasts. They are considered as indicating the wealth of the owner.
Of the deer tribe we have two genera of the sub-family Cervince ; those with horns
HOG DEER (RECORD HEAD).
set on pedicels as long as or longer than the antkrs a Cervulus ; and those with long antlers on short pedicelsaCervus. Cervulus muntjae, the rib-faced or barking deera a gyi aais one known to many European residents, as it is more generally distributed than the others. In most bush cover, except on the open plains, there is a chance of a shot at a agyia ; they prefer forests and hilly country, and often ascend to a very considerable elevation. They stand about twenty inches at the shoulder, and weigh thirty to forty pounds. The horns are set on pedicels some three inches to four inches long. An exceedingly good head measures six inches. The hinds, as is the case with nearly all the deer tribe, are hornless, but have little projections in place of them, from which grow small bristly tufts of hair. Stags, too, have some long hair about the burr. A bony ridge extends from each ptdicel down the face converging anteriorly, hence the name a rib-faced.a The other name a barking deer,a is derived from the call, which, at a short distance, is loud and resembles the bark of a dog. It is repeated at intervals. When camping near jungle it is a familiar sound in the mornings and evenings. They are a rich chestnut colour. As a rule they are solitary in their habits, and I have never seen more than two together, except in the course of drives near to each other, when half a dozen may be turned out. They run in a peculiar, sneaky way, head down and hind-quarters high, and are very smart at working through the densest cover. In parts where they are plentiful the villagers drive them, setting ordinary bag-nets at places where they are likely to break. Of the other (C.fcct) very little is known, only one specimen is recorded from Tenasserim, the colour of which was sepia-brown.
Eldas deer, Cervus Eldi, the brow-antlered deer (athamina) are the most handsome of the deer found in Burma. They are of
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