TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF BURMA. 177
cement tanks as are to be found in private gardens. Perhaps this monkey is better known to European residents since it is the most common species in captivity. They are very intelligent, full of mischief, and can be taught tricks. The females especially, will become very tame ; the males, when they grow old are apt to become morose and uncertain in temper.
The Pig-tailed monkeys, both M. Iconinns (Burmese, a myauk-mai a) and M. nemestriiius (Burmese, a myauk-padi a) are met with in parts of the province. They inhabit much denser cover than the crab-eaters. The young of both species become very docile, but the males often grow very savage, and their size and strength render them undesirable pets. The M. nemestrinus are said by Sir Stamford Raffles to be trained in Sumatra to climb trees and gather cocoanuts for their masters ; in Burma I have heard of them climbing cocoanut trees on their own account and doing damage by knocking down nuts that were not required.
The next group claiming attention is the genus Semnopithecus, sometimes called leaf monkeys, of which there are some four or five varieties widely distributed. As a general rule these monkeys prefer dense high jungle, or bamboo jungle in the vicinity of streams. They like hilly country and may be met with at a considerable elevation, but some are found in the mangrove jungles near the coast. Most of the Burmese species are shy and wary, and owing to their habitat are not often encountered by Europeans. They live in parties of thirty to sixty, although occasionally an a old man a goes wandering about on his own account. When disturbed these monkeys give vent to a loud, angry and rather hoarse bark. Not infrequently the troop dashes off shaking the branches and bamboos, and making the most astounding leaps. Occasionally an a old man a of the tribe takes up a position on a high tree, uttering deep curses at the intruders, and will not move until he thinks it is highly advisable for him to do so for the sake of his own safety. When in bamboos they often jump to the ground and take to their heels. The body and limbs are slender, the tail very long, always exceeding the length of the head and body. They are very docile, but difficult to rear.
animals about the size of a small rabbit. The ears and tail are so short as to be almost concealed beneath their very close woolly fur which covers the whole body except the lips and nose. Their colour is a beautiful silver grey; their eyes are large and set very close. With the exception of one claw on one toe on each hind foot, they have neat little nails. In habits they are strictly nocturnal and arboreal. I have kept several as pets ; they are usually very tame, they move very slowly but have a terrific grip for so small a creature. They live on fruit, insects, eggs, and c. I had one with a baby which she carried more or less concealed in her fur, and while it was very young the mother was savage. It was most amusing to watch these little fellows capturing grasshoppers and other insects ; they raised themselves on their hind legs with hands ready, and suddenly darted forward and rarely missed capturing their prey. They never would look at anything in the beetle line, but the presence of a praying mantis or grass-hopper caused great excitement.
of the hen roosts. When wounded the panther is a nasty customer, and many men have died through injuries inflicted by one. I have never heard of a panther taking to man-eating, though I have of a panther attacking a villager or two unprovoked. Unlike tigers they are frequently found in the bush round villages, or even hiding in
PYTHON MOLURUS ON EGGS (RANGOON ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS).
GAUR (BOS GAURUS).
Closely allied to the monkeys are the family of lemurs of which we have but one representative, the Slow Loris, Nycticebns tarciigradus. (Burmese, a myouk-moung-ma aa monkeyas servant). These are quaint little
The order carnivora is largely represented. The most typical of the group belong to the family Felidcv, in which are included the a beasts of prey.a Of these the tiger in point of size and importance ranks first. The Burmese tiger (a kyali a) is the same as the Indian, but may differ in unimportant details as regards habits. They are generally found 4 in any heavy forest or dense grass jungle. In many parts of India tigers practically are caitle-killers, but in Burma, although now and again an ox is killed on a jungle grazing ground, they are generally game-killers, perhaps because there is such an abundance of game. Several instances are on record of a tiger, in one case of two tigers, attacking, and inflicting severe wounds on full grown tame elephants in the jungle, and they often destroy baby elephants by biting their legs, thus laming them, so that when the herd moves off in search of food, as it must do, the injured youngsters lag behind, and when opportunity offers are attacked and killed. One rarely follows up a big herd of elephants with calves at heel, without finding the track of a tiger or two. They occasionally attack and kill young bison and saing, but are careful to leave the old ones alone. In Burma if a a kill a is found it is well to be in the a machan a by three in the afternoon, as tigers do not wait till late in the evening for their meal, but feed quite early. Man-eating tigers are fortunately not common, but occasionally a man-eater makes himself extremely troublesome. As a rule, it is when an animal is so maimed that he cannot pursue game for food that he begins to regard human beings as suitable prey, and some tigers are extremely bold, and have been known actually to enter villages and remove individuals from under their mosquito nets. It sometimes happens that an injured tigress will teach her cubs to indulge in this easy means of obtaining food, and as a matter of fact, two instances of this have come within my own experience.
It is popularly supposed that this form of diet makes tigers mangy, but so far, I have not seen the hide of a man-eater that was not as sleek as that of any other tiger.
Panthers or leopards are quite numerous. There are two varieties in Burma ; the more common spotted and the rare black panther. These need no description. They are very destructive to goats, sheep, dogs, arid when hungry are not above killing the occupants
standing crops ; they also climb trees well. The so-called clouded leopard (a thit kyoung a aleopard-cat), is of a light, yellowish-brown or cat-grey, colour. It has a spotted head and two black bands with spots between them, commence between the ears and run to the shoulders. Large oval spots or marks cover the back ; the tail has numerous dusky rings. These varieties are found widely distributed through the more hilly tracts, but little is known of them. In addition there are quite a number of wild (jungle) cats, some with beautiful skins, civets, and paradoxures to be found in different parts of the country. One of the cats deserves mention, the Binturong bear-cat,umyouk-kyaha (monkey-tiger) (Arcticlis binturong). I have never seen one in its native haunts ; they live in dense forest, are nocturnal, arboreal, and of retiring habits. They are said to be fierce, but the young ones are most gentle and full of fun, and when full grown show no disposition to be nasty. These cats are remarkable, inasmuch as they are in possession of a true prehensile tail, a condition unique among mammals of the Old World. The tail measures from 25 to 30 inches, while head and body measures about the same, or a little less. Their fur is a grizzled black colour.
There are a number of small mammals such as mongooses and weasels, but of these, the former only are met with by Europeans. Two varieties are found, the common Burmese mongoose and the crab-eating variety. Though such small animals, they are active, inquisitive, game little fellows. When annoyed they erect the long hairs on the body and the tail becomes bushy. They live in holes in the ground and in the hollows of trees ; their food consists of rats and other small mammals, birds, reptiles, and c. A popular impression is that these animals are proof against snake-poison, but this is a fallacy. They are, however, so wonderfully active, that it is rarely a snake manages to bite one of them. They make delightful pets, being both interesting and amusing. As far as I am aware there are 110 hyaenas in Burma, and I have only heard of one wolf being seen; it was shot near Haka, in the Chin Hills. Jackalsaa khwr-ah aaare luckily nothing like as common as they are in India. Perhaps more are found in the Akyab district than elsewhere, but small packs are sometimes encountered in the dry zone of Upper Burma.There are a number of small mammals such as mongooses and weasels, but of these, the former only are met with by Europeans. Two varieties are found, the common Burmese mongoose and the crab-eating variety. Though such small animals, they are active, inquisitive, game little fellows. When annoyed they erect the long hairs on the body and the tail becomes bushy. They live in holes in the ground and in the hollows of trees ; their food consists of rats and other small mammals, birds, reptiles, and c. A popular impression is that these animals are proof against snake-poison, but this is a fallacy. They are, however, so wonderfully active, that it is rarely a snake manages to bite one of them. They make delightful pets, being both interesting and amusing. As far as I am aware there are 110 hyaenas in Burma, and I have only heard of one wolf being seen; it was shot near Haka, in the Chin Hills. Jackalsa a khwr-ah a a are luckily nothing like as common as they are in India. Perhaps more are found in the Akyab district than elsewhere, but small packs are sometimes encountered in the dry zone of Upper Burma.