TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF BURMA.
schools and veterinary schools. The latter are not under the control of the Education Department. A matter which is receiving some attention is the introduction of the study of hygiene or elementary science into all schools.
The position of technical education in the province can be gauged when it is stated that during last year the expenditure on such schools was Rs. 59,649, as compared with Rs. 60,375 the previous year, a decrease of one per cent. Engineering schools were the only institutions where there was an increased expenditure.
Female Education.aFemale education is a matter of great importance in Burma, where the women have much more liberty in various spheres of life than their sisters in India. Schools are classified in Burma as boysa and girlsa schools, according as one or other is in the majority. Monastic schools do not as a rule admit girls, but there are exceptions among the more liberal minded monks. In regard to management, the Government, as stated above, maintain no secondary schools for girls, whether Anglo-vernacular or vernacular, and attendance is made at a mixed schools.a Besides scholarships in ordinary schools, girls may also obtain valuable help towards qualifying themselves for professional careers.
The total number of girls in institutions of all kinds, public or private, was for the year 1907-8, 70,298, of whom 66,220 were in public institutions. Compared with the previous year, the cost of female education increased by 10 per cent, which was due principally to the secondary schools.
European Education. a There are sixteen secondary and two primary schools in the province where a European Education a is taught. According to the European Code, a European a signifies a any person of European descent, pure or mixed, who shall retain European habits and modes of life,a and now Europeans are admissible in a European school up to 15 per cent, of the total number of the pupils. On the other hand, a number of Europeans and Eurasians are to be found in Anglo-vernacular schools mainly because the managers have been unable to afford the expense of a separate European school. Comparatively few of the European students reach the collegiate stage of education. The majority of the pupils are in the secondary schools, where boys, at all events, receive a sufficiently good education to fit them to serve the mercantile community by whom they are in great demand.
The largest number of European schools
is to be found in Rangoon. Of the 18 schools mentioned, only one, the Government European School at Maymyo, is under public management, the others at the time of writing, with the exception of the two primary schools managed by the Burma Railway Company, being under missionary agency. Of the total number of pupils attending European schools, 141 were returned last year as non-Europeans, while 1,296 European pupils were reported as being in non-European schools. A system of hostels, where sound principles of physical and moral training are imparted, obtains in connection with fifteen schools ; bursaries are also granted to deserving pupils, and scholarships are likewise offered, while in regard to technical education the only institution is
the Industrial Convent for girls at Rangoon. Last year [the cost of European education rose from Rs. 2,24,401 in 1906-7 to Rs. 3,45,001, of which sum the Government share amounted to Rs. 1,68,105.
Mahomedan Education.aIn all parts of the Indian Empire Mahomedan education is in a backward state, due to indifference and religious feeling. But in Burma this is not exactly the case, and Mahomedan education has in recent years shown a steady though slow advance. The number of scholars has increased, as also the number of schools, by far the largest number being in Arakan. Over three-fourths of the pupils are in public schools, while the purely Mahomedan schools
are all primary, many of the Mahomedan scholars pass the higher standards in ordinary schools. Mahomedan female education is very backward. There are no schools specially for girls, and though the number attending school has increased, it is very low and practically no girls go beyond Standard II.
Education of Special Classes.aEducation is provided for a variety of tribes throughout the province, who may be classified as follows :a
(a) The more civilised communities fairly closely connected in ideas and manners, if not actually by racial affinity, with the Burmese, namely, Talaings, Karens, and Shans ;
(b) Hill or wild tribes of Tibetan or
Mongolian extraction, namely Kachins and Chins ;
(c) Immigrants from India or China.
School hostels play an important part in the education of the province. The number attached to Government or municipal institutions last year was 14, while aided schools had 84, unaided schools 18, and there were 41 for girls. The total number of male boarders was 5,296, and females 1,801. The expenditure on hostels for males was Rs. 3,02,421, and for females Rs. 1,89,268.
In regard to finance, the cost of education in Burma is yearly increasing. Last year the total expenditure had risen to nearly forty lakhs, an increase of 13 per cent, compared
HIGH SCHOOL, PROME.HIGH SCHOOL, PROME.