128 TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS
managed by Government and 20 are aided, as contrasted with 5 and 24 respectively during the years 1906-7. The total cost of primary education last year was Rs. 12,22,252, as against Rs. 11,29,378 in 1906-7.
The following statistics apply to all the primary schools in the province :a
for admission is a pass by the sixth standard. Those who remain two years receive a primary grade certificate,a those who remain three a secondary grade certificate, those who remain four a higher grade certificate, provided of course their work merits this recognition. This is regarded
For Boys For Girls
Total of Public Institutions.
Total ot Scholars on March 31, 1908.
A Classical Language.
A Vernacular Language.
The scholars represent the following races or creeds :a
Europeans and Eurasians ... 176
Native Christians ...... 12,305
Non-Brahmans ...... 1,669
Mahomedans ...... 3*848
Buddhists ......... 165,140
Others ... ... ... 5^
Training Schools.a a Schools for Special Instruction a in Burma are classified as follows :a
Training schools for masters.
a a a mistresses.
Engineering and medical schools.
Technical and industrial schools.
The training schools for masters and mistresses may be said to be equivalent to the British normal schools for the training of teachers. These, together with European schools, are entrusted to a separate inspector. At one time it was possible to obtain a certificate of teaching capacity without going through a normal school, but this practice has ceased, and on January 1, 1908, the schools came under new regulations. The initial qualification on the Anglo-vernacular side is now a seventh standard pass. This was required only from secondary grade students before, the primary grade being admitted with a fifth standard pass. The period of training is two years, except for higher grade students, who require three. The literary course requires more English, but in other subjects has been limited so as to give students a thorough knowledge of what they will be afterwards called upon to teach.
On the vernacular side the qualification
as a very substantial gain and as tending to an improvement of vernacular education.
mistresses, two at Rangoon and one each at Moulmein and Bassein.
Hitherto the salaries paid to teachers have not been very attractive, and the supply of trained teachers has accordingly fallen short of the demand. Vernacular students leaving normal schools are frequently not appointed to Government service. They go into other employment and are lost to the Education Department. This result is due to the temporary salary grant system, which does not attract them, and the proposal to give fixed salaries has been made.
The itinerant teachers are an element in the Burmese system of training which has been in operation for a number of years. The itinerant teachers are not, it is stated, to be depended upon if left to themselves. They go about the province teaching and advising, and in many cases they have given valuable assistance to village schoolmasters, but the
ST. PAULaS HIGH SCHOOL, RANGOON.
There are twelve normal schools in the provinceaeight for masters and four for mistresses. Government normal schools are located at Rangoon, Mandalay, Moulmein, Akyab, and Toungoo, while aided normal schools are the Baptist College, Rangoon (vernacular and Anglo-vernacular), St. Johnas College, Rangoon (Anglo-vernacular), and the Roman Catholic Mission normal schools, Thonze (vernacular). There are no special schools for mistreses maintained by Government, but many attend Government normal schools, which are really mixed schools. There are four aided normal schools for
majority discharge their duty in a very perfunctory way. Now, proposals have been made to utilise the services of a number of them as sub-inspectors, as the inspecting staff of the province is urgently needing strengthening.
The staffing arrangements at the various normal schools are generally very satisfactory considering the inadequacy of the salaries. Buildings are good, but much remains to be done in order to equip the schools and make them thoroughly efficient. The expenditure on the schools is met by provincial revenues and other sources. During the year 1907 8The staffing arrangements at the various normal schools are generally very satisfactory considering the inadequacy of the salaries. Buildings are good, but much remains to be done in order to equip the schools and make them thoroughly efficient. The expenditure on the schools is met by provincial revenues and other sources. During the year 1907 8