success in exercising a beneficial influence on the students. It is rather significant that out of 29 hostel students presented last year for the F.A. examination 20 were successful, while out of 17 non-resident students passes only numbered 5. In regard to facilities for recreation both colleges are well equipped.
Scholarships are awarded to certain young men and women to enable them to attend the Medical College in Calcutta or the Royapuram Medical School, Madras, and to qualify for appointments according to the nature of the scholarship obtained. The number who received such assistance rose from 26 in 1902 to 58 in 1907, while last year eight special scholarships were sanctioned for students who intend becoming teachers, six for students entering the F.A. classes and two for those entering the B.A. classes. There are now 45 F.A. and 12 B.A. scholarships awarded during the University course.
The institution of a medical school in Rangoon has been approved, and in future medical students in Burma will not be obliged to prosecute their professional education at Calcutta.
There is no Oriental College in Burma, and for it are substituted special examinations by the Department at Pali which attract a large number of candidates. These tests are known as the Patamange, Patamalat, Pata-magyi, and Patamagyaw. Similar tests were held in the days of the Burmese kings, and the present examinations are a revival (instituted in 1896) in a modified form of the Burmese aves. During the year 1907-8, candidates for the Patamagyaw grade numbered 13 ; for the Patamagyi, 30 ; for Patamalat, 130, and for the Patamange, 444 ; and the passes were nil, 1, 31, and 201 respectively. The vast majority of the candidates are as a rule pongyis though there are also a few nuns and occasionally several laymen.
Collegiate education is supported from provincial revenues, fees, and private sources. The income from private benefactions has hitherto been very small, and university work is greatly handicapped for want of endowments. The Government is doing a great deal in the way of extension but there are limits to its resources, and there are vast opportunities for private enterprise. Compared with the previous year, the cost of collegiate education in 1907-8 rose by 28 per cent, to Rs. 99,882. Provincial revenues contributed about Rs. 67,000, an increase of 37 per cent. The fee income last year was practically stationary, amounting to about 13 per cent, of the total cost. Income from
other sources increased by 21 per cent. The average cost of each student increased during last year from Rs. 551 to Rs. 666. The rewards paid to successful candidates in the Patainabyn examinations amounted last year to Rs. 12,375 as compared with Rs. 4.450 during the year 1906-7.
The following table shows the position of the Colleges during 1906-7 and 1907-8 :a
state ownership has been more marked than in that of the Anglo-vernacular secondary schools. Municipalities, of course, prefer English rather than vernacular secondary schools, but when their upkeep proves too costly, it will be found that the state ownership of them will become complete, and municipalities will then devote their attention solely to the support of vernacular education.
No. of Col- leges. No. of Stu- dents No. Learning. Euro- Hindus. Expen- diture on Colleges. Scholar- ships in Colleges.
Year. Classi-Eng- cal lish. j Language peans and Eura- sians. Native Chris- tians. Brah- mans. Non-Brah-1 mans. Mahom- edans.
1906 7 2 135 135 112 1 r5 i j 28 O 7 7 77 1 Rs 78,214 Rs. 21,516
1907 8 2 138 138 123 27 ! 27 3 4 6 71 0 99,882 22,692
ST. JOHNaS COLLEGE, RANGOON.
Secondary Education.aSecondary education in Burma has been of slow growth, and its expansion at the present day is in need of acceleration. There are two kinds of secondary schools, the Anglo - vernacular, which proceeds on European lines, and at which the course is a purely a literary a one, leading to Calcutta University, and the vernacular, which represents indigenous teaching. In the early days mission bodies and monastic institutions conducted those schools, and, later, in many districts, municipalities took over their management, but all that is now being gradually superseded by state ownership. In the case of the vernacular secondary schools the extension of
The maintenance of efficient Anglo-vernacular schools has been proved by experience to be too expensive for municipalities, and the Government is gradually undertaking the direct responsibility for them. The intention is to have one Government secondary school in each district.
One reason which may be offered for the comparative non-expansion of higher education in Burma, especially in regard to the number of students, is the practice, which has increased of late years, of students proceeding to England to prosecute their studies, instead of taking the full university course in the province. The results of this practice are regarded as good, but only aOne reason which may be offered for the comparative non-expansion of higher education in Burma, especially in regard to the number of students, is the practice, which has increased of late years, of students proceeding to England to prosecute their studies, instead of taking the full university course in the province. The results of this practice are regarded as good, but only a