Anglo-vernacular), but also manage and finance them. These agencies are often the means of bringing remote areas and wild tribes under the influence of education. Many of their schools receive State aid, and these are examined and supervised by the department. There are also petty jungle schools which are not officially recognised, and are amenable only to the mission authorities. In regard to vernacular education, there is the Pongyi with his monastic school ; then there is the Buddhist Thathanabaing or a Archbishop a who wields considerable influence in Upper Burma.
Briefly, it may be stated, that the Educational Department consists of an Imperial, a Provincial, and a Subordinate Service. During the quinquennium 1902-7, the Department was
increased by 1 inspector, 13 deputy inspectors,
11 sub-inspectors, and 46 itinerant teachers. In the Imperial or Indian Educational Service of Burma, there were on March 31, 1902, eight posts, and on March 31, 1907, eleven, the three additional appointments being the Principalship of the Government Collegiate High School, Rangoon, the Assistant Directorship, and the Inspectorship of Normal Schools and European Education. Last year (1908) the appointment of an additional inspector Af schools for the province was sanctioned, thus increasing the number of posts in the Imperial service to twelve. The entire teaching staff employed by Government at the end of last year was 285, as against 264 in 1906-7, and 74 in 1901-2. Since 1902-3
the clerical staff has increased from 22 to 52. With the increase in the number of inspectors, they have, instead of being centred for the most part in Rangoon, been distributed throughout the province at divisional headquarters, and made more fully responsible for the direction of education in their circles.
Collegiate Education. a There are two colleges in Burma, the Government College and the Baptist College in Rangoon. The former institution is situated at no great distance from the business quarters of the town, and is easy of access. From 1886 till
1902, the institution was under the control of the Educational Syndicate, but on the latter date the Government took over its
The second college, belonging to the
American Baptist Mission, is established in a suburb, where the mission owns a considerable acreage, on which several of their principal educational institutions a the High School and the Anglo-Vernacular Normal Schoolaare erected. With the work of the college these schools have been closely identified. While the Government College teaches up to the B.A. degree, the Baptist College only teaches up to the F.A. standard, but it is proposed to reconstitute the latter on a first grade basis in order that it might also qualify pupils for the B.A. standard.
One of the most regrettable features in the educational life of Burma is the comparative apathy in regard to college and high school work. While primary education has
shown a very remarkable advance, college and high school education has shown few signs of development. In regard to the colleges, the lack of interest is explained to be due to inadequate teaching facilities, and the consequent restriction in the curriculum ; but with improved accommodation and staffing at both colleges these complaints will be speedily removed. In regard to the vernacular high school it has little practical value as a qualification, while on the Anglo-vernacular side the seventh standard pass qualifies for admission to many posts in the Government service, and implies a sufficient knowledge of English for ordinary business purposes. The question of the establishment of a first-class university for Burma has been discussed from time to time but the experience of the existing colleges does not justify such a course of action at present.
In academic circles there is a feeling of dissatisfaction with the revised curriculum under recent regulations for affiliation with Calcutta University. It is contended that the management of the schools as well as of the colleges has to be moulded to conditions and regulations, which, however acceptable to the Bengali or the native Behar or Orissa, are entirely unsuitable to the particular circumstances of Burma and the Burmese. In such matters, however, the Government are proceeding cautiously, and points affecting teaching and administration, which have been found to give dissatisfaction, are being gradually and effectively dealt with, with a view to future development.
In regard to the numbers attending the colleges, the figures show a gradual decline. In 1901-2 the numbers at both colleges were practically double those of 1896-97. By 1903-4 the Baptist College figures had risen to 25, but since then there has been a downward tendency. In 1905-6 the Government College reached a total of 187, but in the following year this had been reduced to 119, while during the year 1907-8 the number stood at 115. The reduction is attributable to the increased stringency of the Calcutta University examiners in the entrance test. The output of graduates is, therefore, necessarily restricted. While in 1904-5, 150 Burmese candidates passed, the number dropped to 71 in the following year. Last year (1908)
10 candidates appeared for the B.A. examination, and 7 passed; while 49 appeared for the F.A. examination and 25 passed, 16 in the second division.
Attached to both colleges, as to many of the ordinary schools, are hostels for students, and these establishments have been an entire
RANGOON COLLEGE, RANGOON.RANGOON COLLEGE, RANGOON.