them as a great nervous shock, paralysing all stimulus and enterprise, from which they had not recovered, even when their last dynasty was overthrown by the British in 1885 AD-
The following resume of the chief events in the history of Pagan between the third and thirteenth centuries a.d. will be of interest:a
Third Century a.d.aBurma was conquered by the kingdom of Shu, one of the three kingdoms into which China was then divided, and she became tributary to China.
Fourth Century a.d.aThe Mahayanist form of Buddhism was introduced into Burma by Chinese missionaries, who taught it in Chinese. No Chinese epigraphic remains have, so far, been discovered with
Seventh - Eighth Centuries a.d. a The current Burmese era, which began in 638 a.d., was borrowed from China, thereby indicating the paramount character of the Chinese ascendancy. In the eighth century, Nanchao, the Shan Kingdom of Talifu, annexed Burma, and became a medium of communication between Tibet and Burma, and Tibetan religious influences penetrated into Pagan.
Ninth-Tenth Centuries a.d.aTantrism was introduced from Bengal through Assam and Manipur. Its priests, called a Aris,a favoured serpent-worship, and the Jus ptimce noclis prevailed amongst them.
Eleventh Century a.d.aHInayanism or Buddhism of the Southern School, whose vehicle is Pali, was introduced into Pagan
a.d. The Burmese Empire was broken up, and the Shans and Talaings asserted their independence.
The glories achieved by the Burmese at Pagan were never repeated elsewhere. They became subject to Kings of Shan nationality, who reigned at Metkaya, Myinzaing, Panya, and Sagaing for 126 years. Even after the foundation of Ava in 1364 a.d., there was a serjes of usurpations and massacres by Shan chiefs. A slight recovery in national lustre and glory was made by the Nyaungyan dynasty, which ruled at Ava from 1599 to 1751 a.d., when it was overthrown by the Talaings. Then the dynasty of Alompra succeeded, which ruled from 1753 to 1885 a.d., and witnessed the inevitable process of decay and disintegration due to the growth
THE QUEENaS GOLDEN MONASTERY, MANDALAY.
the single exception of the Chinese inscription set up by the Mongols at Pagan in the thirteenth century a.d., but there is ample architectural and philological evidence to prove the dominant character of the Chinese influence.
Fifth - Sixth Centuries a.d. a The Chinese of the south were engaged in an incessant struggle with the Tartars of the north, and Chinese control and influence became considerably weakened, and Burma escaped from the thraldom of Chinese hieroglyphs and ideographs. The Indian form of Mahayanism was introduced by Indian missionaries from Northern and Eastern India, who taught it in Sanskrit, using the alphabet of the Gupta period.
after Anawrataas conquest of Thaton in 1057 a.d. Pagan had latterly received her letters and religion from Aryan or Northern India, while Pegu had received hers from the Dravidians of the South. It was in the eleventh century a.d., that the Aryan and Dravidian systems were harmoniously blended at Pagan, and that thenceforward Burmese civilisation assumed a definite aspect.
Twelfth Century a.d.aAn outburst of architectural energy took place, which lasted from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries a.d. The most celebrated temples of Pagan, like the Shwezigon, Ananda, and Manuha, were built during this century.
Thirteenth Century a.d.aThe Mongols, under Kublai Khan, overran Burma in 1284
of luxury, sensuality, and sloth, and to the weakening of the religious and moral sense.
The Talaings established themselves at Thaton under Slharaja, who is said to have come over from India and to have died in 543 B.C. There were fifty-nine kings belonging to his dynasty, the last being Manuha, who was conquered by Anawrata and taken captive to Pagan in 1057 a.d. A rival kingdom was set up at Pegu in 573 a.d., which became extinct in 781 a.d. From this time a blank of about five hundred years occurs in the annals of Pegu, during which the names of no native kings are entered. The pillars of victory of Rajendra Chola I., who overran Pegu in 1025-27 a.d., that is to say, a few years before the conquest ofThe Talaings established themselves at Thaton under Slharaja, who is said to have come over from India and to have died in 543 B.C. There were fifty-nine kings belonging to his dynasty, the last being Manuha, who was conquered by Anawrata and taken captive to Pagan in 1057 a.d. A rival kingdom was set up at Pegu in 573 a.d., which became extinct in 781 a.d. From this time a blank of about five hundred years occurs in the annals of Pegu, during which the names of no native kings are entered. The pillars of victory of Rajendra Chola I., who overran Pegu in 1025-27 a.d., that is to say, a few years before the conquest of