SPECIAL FORMS OF SPEECH
the Malay antan and alu, a pestle.a Evidently, unless these forms have been deliberately moulded on the Javanese Krama, which seems unlikely, this formula is either in its origin unartificial, like the method of vowel-modification, or at any rate it is of very ancient date.
The reason why I have mentioned, with perhaps too much detail, these two leading Javanese forms of doublet-formation is that both of them, the one with mere vowel change and the other with consonantal modification as well, are found in the aboriginal dialects of the Peninsula (including the taboo language). Thus in Besisi the polite (behasa kalus) word for alonga is jelakng, and for a deep,a jerak, of which the vulgar (behasa kasar) forms are jelifng and jerok respectively, thus affording a precise parallel, both in form and meaning, to the Javanese Krama and Ngoko differentiation by vowel change. Similarly a black a is presented by a double form hirafam and hir'o^m; and though in this instance we are not told that the one is considered politer than the other, yet it may be presumed that there is a shade of difference in their use corresponding to the slight difference in form.1 Probably further inquiries would result in the discovery of additional doublets.2
Of the differentiation by consonantal change examples also occur, but no specialised meaning has been distinctly recorded in connection with them. The following, however, are so closely analogous to the Krama forms that it seems worth while to draw particular attention to them.
1 The word, moreover, is Malayo- has pointed out, probably a mere
Polynesian, being identical with the variant.
Kawi hiring (originally probably 2 Compare, for instance, the Besisi
hidtm), of which the Malay hitam gentah and Beduanda gfrfntah, with
(from an older hittm) is, as Kern the Malay guntur, a thunder.a(from an older hittm) is, as Kern the Malay guntur, a thunder.a