NEGRITOS OF PERAK
I when the embryonic human body dies in consequence of a fight of this kind,
I the victory as between the souls nevertheless remains with the one that is human, j The tiger-souls in these fungi are not the souls of tigers already deceased, but I newly-developed souls derived from a stock which Kari has created and scat-! tered abroad upon the earth like seeds.1
j All creatures that are inimical to man obtain their souls from poisonous fungi, j whereas harmless creatures obtain their souls from harmless fungi.
I When an adult man (or a woman who is not pregnant) partakes of a poison-i fungus, containing the soul of a harmful beast, the beast-soul attacks the human f individual quite as violently as if the attack were made by a creature that was I adult, but in the case of an expectant mother, the beast-soul attacks the soul of | the un-born child because it is the weaker. If the soul-bird falls upon a poison-J fungus, which contains a beastathe soul of some beast or reptile, other than } a tigerasuch as, for instance, that of a snakeathe latter bites the body
i of the unborn child, but it is not certain whether the child will necessarily die or f not. Some slight protection is afforded by the appropriate design upon the birth-1 amboo carried by the mother, this design being capable of repelling such attacks, although during the birth a tiger-soul thus repulsed may revenge itself a uPAn the mother. Hence in cases of difficult birth the Puttos were always called in to assist, since they were able, by means of special charms, to avert these attacks as well as the others.
I Phosphorescent fungi, such as give light by night, contain the unborn souls I night-beasts, and give out light in order to show the female where to find the | soul she is looking for. Many kinds of beasts have many young at a time, Ianc* fAr these whole groves of fungi shoot up when required.
} The West Semang no longer believe in the soul-bird, and even employ the bird itself as food ; but the East Semang (Pangan) only kill the bird on behalf of their women-folk. In addition, they believe that the souls of Malays, Chinese, and Siamese were obtained from another kind of birds corresponding to the Physical peculiarities of these several races. Before they leave the presence of .1 the souls sit in the branches of a big tree behind his seat and there wait until he sends them away. What their shape is the Semang do not know ; they Anly know that it does not resemble the human form, and that this latter is only attained in the body. After the death of their human embodiment the souls wnich possess a human shape can no longer return to Kari to pass into new Q es, have then to wait in a different place. Since the soul never dies, e soul-birds themselves do not die until they have fulfilled their mission; nor can they be shot by mistake; the arrow will miss them, until their predestined s ayer should happen to shoot at them.2
According to another tradition, the souls of fish are contained in riverside |g asses and bushes, every species of fish having its corresponding species of plant.
e ^nie is the case with sea-beasts. Birds fly behind the mountains when the Min goes down and into the country of the Sen-oi; there they eat certain nown fruits, and in this way obtain souls for their eggs. The only excep-siAns are the birds called a chim-iui aa and atil-til-tapa.a These need no souls, ncA they themselves are human souls in the visible shape of birds. When they the 116 ^ ^Ar t^le^r eAesA w^en they are ready to fetch more human souls, on/ frnit of the manas or womanas birth-tree, as the case may be. When
the A ^ese ^irds dies a natural death, it is because of the death of the child in un, Womb but opinions are divided as to what may be the fate of such an emb SOU*a Some, however, think it returns to Kari, and becomes re-
SemA *n anot^er the eating of whose flesh brings twins to another
ang woman, just as if she had eaten the soul-bird with an egg.
enever an East Semang (Pangan) dies, his birth-tree dies soon after. If,
1 Vaughan-Stevens, iii. 114.
2 Ibid. p. 114.2 Ibid. p. 114.