THEORIES OF VAUGHAN-STEVENS 623
These patterns, then (according to Vaughan-Stevens), represent ideographs drawn direct from nature (in the first instance at all events), but complicated by addition of distinguishing marks, which cannot be separated from the patterns themselves. The Semang theory of the evolution of these patterns, which they are declared to illustrate by a number of series proceeding from the simplest to the most complicated forms, may or may not have been [in Dr. Preussa s A pinion; in ours most certainly must have been] due to injudicious a leading a ^estions put by Vaughan-Stevensa at all events it is described very properly by r- Preuss as a perfectly valueless exercise, such as might occupy an ethnologist at his study-table. The same general remarks apply to the a somewhat inapprehensiblea grouping of the patterns on the quivers and charm-bamboos, which we are similarly given a number of sets, in this case too proceeding jrA m the simplest (representing the mildest diseases) to the most complicated representing the worst), although [as Vaughan-Stevens here quite rightly objects] j*is certain that the patterns for the most serious diseases would naturally have en developed before those for the milder ones.
The classification of the comb patterns is next discussed by Dr. Preuss, and Ce*tain conclusions drawn therefrom, but as both classification and conclusions based on the untenable a flower a a -theory, which we have elsewhere exposed,
0 niore need be said on the subject here.
Finally, the markings on the pandanus leaves (a buyua )are considered as PA $sibiy taken from nature, though the alleged connection between the triple lines and the three kinds of lightning is somewhat mildly described as oscure. [We may add that in our own view there is no proof whatever of the A n*ier, and that the latter statement is utterly absurd.]
The comparative rarity, if not the complete absence, of any identity of pttern as between the various panels of the 140 different comb-designs is then Uehed on, and the possible cause of those divergences considered, the use of e alleged special signs or marks (a gehab,a a edziat,a a ob,a and a kos a ) being ' ^sidered in this connection, and the superfluous character of the a tepi a a -line 0r the real explanation of which see our text] is pointed out. jA The classification of the so-cailed a wasa - and a pawera a -patterns is then lscussed, as to which the same comments may be made as have been above PpHed to the theory of the comb patterns. Dr. Preuss himself very justly j/^ts out many inconsistencies and difficulties. We ourselves have explained c the text the real signification of many of the terms, notably a kabu salag,a t^ abu padi,a a neing,a a behai,a and (as mentioned above) a tA pi,a and it is A refore unnecessary to recur to the question here. Turning to the patterns on 0r\charm-tubes, quivers, and blowpipes, Dr. Preuss observes that a on account e*r greater lack of system they appear to be older than the combs,a although, tw* urse, according to the Vaughan-Stevensa theory, it was the comb patterns ^ *Were developed first. Nevertheless the combs are treated first in order, and fegend of their introduction is related in detail. The comb patterns are then ^11 a11^ shown to consist, generally speaking, of a broad band in the centre
V * U tin-weg,a with two narrow bands at the top, which (according to t0 ^han-Stevens) are called a wasa and a pawer,a and two lower bands alleged b^e of no special importance. [We have in the text already exposed the J5Ss character of this imaginary system.] w e are next asked to believe that the different parts of the same comb A A ^ are supposed to act independently of and successively to each other; if the M does not act, the a pawera will, and if that fails, the a tin-weg.a No es axe given for this remarkable hypothesis, the accuracy of which must be ^ enged when we find that certain of the combs, whose patterns are designed U*afA Lect the wearer against deadly illnesses, have nothing but a a tin-weg,a and the a wasa and a pawera are in themselves of no utility whatever. Dr. himself a receives the impression a that the flower-patterns (a wasa a and