William and Robert Chambers,
Text on page A-18
denouncing his sins before all the people ; and, after so long a famine, he had now been praying for rain, and already the heavy thunder announced rescue to a starving nation. But in all these honours was he proud ? Was he disposed to refuse his lawful king the proper homage of a subject? He would let all Israel see how he honoured the ruler of his people, and how far he was from vain-glory amid such triumphs. Gathering his robes about him, therefore, and mixing with those who ran before the king, he did nothing out of the way, nothing for effect, nothing in the least supernatural ; but testified, in the happiest manner, not merely his own humility, but that even a wicked king had ceremonial claims which a good subject should not deny.
My stay in Madras extended from January 26 till March 17, 1837, including journeys into the interior. The weather during this period was truly delightful. Instead of remarks resulting from piy own experience, I transcribe a table, showing the highest and lowest state of the thermometer, and the mean temperature, for every month in the year :a
January. ... Max. 80. M in. G. Mean height, 7-J.5.
February. . . a a 87. 60. 77-8.
March..... " 00. a a 09. A0.7.
April...... a a 94. a a 7~. 8.17.
May....... aa 99. a a 78. 86'.
June...... aa 90. aa 79. 88.4.
July....... a a O.'k 73. 83.
August. . . . 93. .. 72. 84.G.
September.. a a 92. .. 72. 03.
October. . . . aa 91. .. 70. 82.
November. . aa 87. .. 67. 78.
December... a a 04. a a (55. 70.
The state of religious feeling in Madras, at this time at least, is little better than in Calcutta. The concert of prayer, which is held, unitedly, at different churches in rotation, was held, while I was there, at the Scotch Kirk. One city minister only was present, and but thirty-five other persons, though the evening was delightful. The services were just those of public worship, so that it could not with propriety be called a prayer-meeting. But religion seems to be exerting its blessed influence in the city more and more, and recently there have been among the troops in the fort some forty or fifty cases of conversion.
I was happy to find several Sunday schools, though only that of the Wesleyans seems nourishing.
This city is the seat of several missions, by various societies in England and America. There are Episcopal, Scotch, Independent, and Wesleyan churches, with excellent places of worship, where pastors are regularly settled, who conduct services in the English language. Besides the bishops and six Company's chaplains, there are fifteen missionaries, Episcopal, Scotch, Wesleyan, and Amei'ican, besides several who support themselves, and are not connected with any board. Of all the regular missionaries, there are but three who are devoted wholly to the natives. The rest preach in English, or take charge of schools, printing, agencies, and c. There are also in Madras fourteen Catholic priests, and congregations of Armenians, Jews, and c. Some thousands of native youth are gathered into schools under missionary superintendence, and several printing establishments are owned by the missionary boards. The language of the region is Tamul, and in this there are printed the whole Old and New Testaments, and 200 tracts, besides the Pilgrim's Progress, Ayah and her Lady, Swartz's Dialogues, and c. Many of these publications, however, need revision, and many are wanted on other subjects.
As regards Christianity among the natives, Madras is behind Calcutta^ I inquired of several ministers, and most of the missionaries, but no one knew the state or number of native converts. The nominal Christians are few. As to real converts, one missionary thought there were but two or three in the whole city and suburbs ! Another thought there were not half a dozen at the utmost. No one supposed there were more than that number. Some hundreds have been baptised, with
their children, and many have grown up who were baptised in infancy; but the conduct of this body is not always honourable to the cause. Of the Catholics, there are some thousands ; but they are distinguished from the heathen, it is said, not by better morals or manners, but only by not smearing their bodies and faces with idolatrous marks.
I had the pleasure of attending the anniversary meetings of the Wesleyan Mission, the Madras Bible Society, and c. They brought me into a pleasing acquaintance with many missionaries from distant stations, and thus enabled me to enlarge my stock of official memoranda.
I was particularly pleased with the Wesleyan plan of having a second anniversary for the natives, in which the services and speeches were in Tamul. The body of the chapel, cleared of the settees, was well filled with natives, who sat, after their fashion, on the floor. They behaved with perfect decorum, and listened with attention. It certainly is a plan happily calculated tt enlighten and improve the couverts, while it instructs and informs the heathen.
A case has recently occurred, which lias excited a great interest among the natives, far and near. Aru-muga Tambiran (literally, the six-faced god), a distinguished devotee, has been converted to Christianity-He is now very old, having been for fifty years a prominent pilgrim and teacher. Dressed in a yellow robe, the sacred beads round his neck, smeared with ashes and clay, and bearing the various insignia of his high
station, he made pilgrimages to many and distant places of distinguished sanctity, and was every where received with profound veneration. Eleven others, who had begun this course with him, had died. Scarcely any man, far and near, stood so high as Arumuga. His very appellationaTambiranastruck awe to the bosom of every Hindu, for " Tambirans rank higher than Brahmins, and inferior only to the invisible gods." * His public baptism, last August, has created a strong sensation through the entire peninsula. Being a poet, he has written several pieces, which have been printed in largo quantities, and are sought after with great avidity : this being the style of the sacred books. His case, however, is an additional evidence, that though the people are disposed to ask if any of the great have believed in Christ, yet that such an event has little other visible effect than transient wonder.
It was my intention to proceed immediately to Chica-cole, and settle with Mr Day his future position. But, on taking steps for a dk to that place, I learned that Mr Day was daily expected at Madras. This report afterwards proved to be erroneous ; but the repose which it gave me was very providential, as my health, which had been declining continually for some weeks, now became so poor that I should have been arrested on the way.
The ministers and missionaries of the city urge Mr Day's location here. This opinion, which had been previously expressed by various brethren in Burmah and Bengal, I now adopted as my own, for reasons which it is not important to rehearse. Mr Day had previously resolved to leave Chicacole ; and on communicating my opinion, it met his cordial approbation, and he immediately prepared to embark for Madras, with his family.
Learning that Teloogoos abound in Southern India, and anxious not only to learn about them, but to measure the degree of the missionaries' success in a regiAn where Ziegenbalg, Swartz, and others had laboured iAr more than a century, I availed myself of the time which would intervene before Mr Day's arrival, to makA an excursion to Tanjore and Trichinopoly, through the districts of Chingleput and South Arcot. Instead oi leaving the reader to pick out detached remark9A scattered through the journal of this tour, I will, while speaking of Teloogoos and their new missionary, thro
* Dr Francis Buchanan.* Dr Francis Buchanan.