i io BURMA, PAST AND PRESENT
tion was common to both, so also the belief in paradise and purgatory ; 4th, he remarked that they made suffrages, alms, prayers, and sacrifice for the dead, like the Roman Catholics ; 5th, that they had convents, filled with monks and friars, who all made the three vows of poverty, obedience, and chastity, like Roman monks, besides other vows ; and 6th, that they had confessors, licensed by the superior lamas or bishops ; and so empowered to receive confessions, to impose penances, and give absolution. Besides these, there was found the practice of using holy water, of singing service in alternation of praying for the dead, and a perfect similarity in the costumes of the great and superior lamas to those of the different orders of the Roman hierarchy."*
The Father might have added to the above, worship of a Queen of Heaven and Child,f tonsure, repetition of prayers with the rosary, use of bells and incense,J works of merit and supererogation,
* Prinsep's " Tibet, Tatary, and Mongolia," p. 13.
t "On the altar of a Chinese temple, behind a screen, is frequently a representation which might answer for that of the Virgin Mary, in the person of Shin-moo, or the sacred mother, sitting in an alcove with a child in her arms, and rays proceeding from a circle, which are called a glory, round her head, with tapers burning constantly before her."aLord Macartney's "Embassy to China," vol. ii., p. 100.
See, also, the mention made of the worship of the Queen of Heaven by the Buddhists of China, in Davis's "Chinese."
The monasteries of Tibet possess also similar representations to that described by Lord Macartney.
X As incense is now burnt in some of our high ritualistic churches, it is wellX As incense is now burnt in some of our high ritualistic churches, it is well