TEMPTATIONS IN THE WILDERNESS. 155
demons, led by the evil nat Mara or Manh,* the arch enemy of mankind ; and subjected, also, to the allurements of beauty, and all the forms of temptation that licentiousness could devise. But he conquers and rejects them, and comes out triumphant out of all his numerous trials. On the morning of the fiftieth day, sitting cross-legged f
* This contest between Gautama and Manh is an allegory exemplifying the triumph of truth over error. Manh is the personification of evil and the implacable enemy of mankind, or, in Christian terminology, the devil. Amongst the plans adopted by Manh to oppose the benevolent designs of Gautama to teach men the way of deliverance from all miseries, was that of flattering his ambition, and promising him, as the Brahmans foretold at his birth, "All the kingdoms of this world and their glory." At other times, to distract his attention when wrapt up in meditation, he causes whirlwinds, earthquakes, and storms of rain. His last attempt was to awaken the fire of lust by the aid of his three daughters, who, severally, assumed the appearances of a pretty girl, a blooming virgin, and a middle-aged beauty ; .but these, and all other attempts, proved powerless against a man who had conquered himself.
The conflict between Gautama with Mara and his demons, Faulinus imagines to be the same with the doctrine of the Magi, concerning Ormuzed and Arima-nius. a "Compendium legis Barmanorum," Muso Borgia, p. 51.
+ Most of the statues of Gautama represent him sitting cross-legged, the left hand open on the lap, and the other hanging over the right knee ; the expression of the face attempted by the sculptor being that of sublime abstraction. In one of these statues of Gautama in my possession, he is represented in this position with a serpent coiled round the pedestal, on which he sits enthroned, in seven folds, with its hood extended over his head. This is the Nga, or nat snake, who presided over a large pool near the Bo-tree, and who, as a means of obtaining great merit, acted thus to protect Gautama during one of the great storms of rain raised by Manh. The pedestal, or throne, on which these statues rest, is in shape that of two triangles joined at the apices, typifying fire and water, the two elements mainly instrumental in the destruction and reproduction of the world.
Statues of Gautama, recumbent on the right side, with the left leg placed directly over the right one, the head resting on the palm of the right hand supported by the elbow, and the left arm extended at length over the left leg, are, too, not uncommon. This is the position he is described to have assumed when he died, or entered Niebban.
These two positions of his statues are intended to force upon the attentionThese two positions of his statues are intended to force upon the attention