Field and Tuer, the Leadenhall Press : Simpkin, Marshall,
Text on page 6
2 6 BURMA AND THE BURMANS.
quirers reduced to three. The population cannot possibly be dense. The character of the country and the iniquitous government, entailing so much misery, preclude a heavy population. Possibly there are twenty-five persons to the square mile, or a total for Burma proper of 1,075,000, and 600,000 for the Northern Shan states, or a gross population of 1,675,000 inhabitants. This omits the Eastern Shan states, which are more populous. The devastating wars which have swept over Indo-China, and of which, owing to its position, it has been the theatre from the most remote historical times, have terribly thinned a population once very dense. It is now over three centuries since Europeans -were first acquainted with the nations of Indo-China, and during the whole of that period those nations have waged among themselves, without foreign aid or interference, a course of hostility and dvasta-A tion, pursued generally for conquest or revenge, as terrible as any on record.
The history of these wars has been an oscillation of advantages and defeats, in which Burmese, Siamese, and Cambodians alternately gain theThe history of these wars has been an oscillation of advantages and defeats, in which Burmese, Siamese, and Cambodians alternately gain the