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of ministers, officers of State, and other Government servants (ahmudan). Each of the more important mansions, mostly built of timber, stood in the midst of its own win, compound, or garden. After the occupation the walled city became a place of arms, the main part of the cantonment which was named Fort Dufferin to commemorate the Governor-General by whom Upper Burma was added to the Empire. In process of time, the whole of the land within
Fig. 74,, Between wall and moat, Mandalay.
the walls was acquired by Government and all the inhabitants were compensated and expropriated. The space thus cleared was filled with barracks, parade grounds, recreation fields, houses of military and civil officers; and so it remains to this day.
The palace of King Mindon and King Thebaw was built so recently as 1845 by Shwebo Min and was transported bodily from Amarapura to Mandalay. It was surrounded by a teak wood stockade and two inner encircling walls.