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Lahtawng, Lepai, Nkhum, and Maran. Cognate tribes are Sassan, Maru, Lashi, and Yawyin. In former times, villages and village groups were either kumsa, under headmen known as duwa, or kumlao, wherein no local head was recognized and all tribesmen were free and equal. This distinction has been abolished. All villages are now kumsa1.
Under nominal Burmese rule, Kachins combined the practice of rude agriculture with the levy of blackmail on caravans passing between Burma and China and the exaction of tribute from protected villages at the foot of the
Fig. 54. Nungs of the Taron Valley.
hills. Now they have to live by their own industry. Order is kept by military police posts which dominate the country and at the same time afford employment to hillmen, compensating the stoppage of lawless customs. For some years, these wild tribes offered stubborn resistance. But after the success of military operations, tact and sympathy and honourable dealing prevailed and the new order was loyally accepted. For more than twenty years Kachins have
1 For an account of Kachin manners and customs, see the Myitkyina* District Gazetteer, W. A. Hertz.