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Text on page 81
PHYSICAL 'FEATURES, GEOLOGY, and c.
rocks. The transverse spur above Sanda runs down from a high, rather peaked hill, consisting chiefly of blue crystalline limestone ; and on the other side of the bay-like vale, the hill behind Sanda is composed of a very hard, splintery, slightly pinkish, quartzose rock, which disintegrates into a rich red soil. A number of spurs of this colour occur all along the base of the northern range, and as the one at Muangla consists of a rock strongly resembling that at Sanda, it is probable that the whole of these spurs are made up of varieties of the same rock. These spurs are peculiar in this respect, that few trees will grow on them, and that their soil is only adapted to tobacco, and one or two minor crops.
In the range that takes the place of the other, which extends from the Kakhyen hills to the right bank of the Tapeng at Muangla, a micaceous granite is found associated with a finely micaceous bluish gneiss, and this is the only spot I observed granite, in position. Below the-Mawphoo gorge, the boulders are chiefly quartzose granite, and a dark earthy slate which was not observed in situ.
The superficial deposits consist chiefly of yellowish and bluish clays, and sandy loam, with interbedded river gravels. An elephant's molar, said to have been found in the channel of one of the streams about Muangla, was offered for sale, but was a long way beyond my means, as A50 were demanded for it. The natives considered it to be the tooth of a dragon, and endowed it with wonderful curative and protective power : it is highly probable that it was washed out of some of the river deposits. It was certainly not a recent tooth. A few peaty beds occur in the upper or Mawphoo portion of the valley, and in that locality the channels of the mountain torrents that enter the Tah from the east are strewn with fragments of imbedded peat, and the occurrence of this deposit originated, no doubt, the statement, made by a Chinaman from Mandalay, that coal was to be found in the Shuemuelong mountain.
Hot springs occur in the centre of the level flat of the bay-like vale close to Sanda, but although the locality has limestone hills on either side of it, the analysis of the water, as made by Dr. Macnamara, the Chemical Examiner for Government, does not show the existence of lime, and only a trace of carbonic acid. The following are the results of Dr. Macnamara's examination of the water :aa
The salts of the alkalis were almost entirely chloride of sodium. Sulphuric and carbonic acids were present, but no nitric acid. There were
49*7 grains, solid matter. 3-9 a salts of alkalis. 10*7 a silica, earthy salts, and oxide of iron.