separated into several dialects. In Zimmay among the Laos, and in Bangkok among the Siamese, much of the common language of daily intercourse is essentially the same as among the Shans ; but there is a greater *ualectie difference between the Shans and Laos and Siamese than there is between the Shans and the Tai-mow. This similarity of language among the Aai family is a sure evidence that there was originally one Tai language from Which the present diversity has sprung.
.p^be Shan language is monosyllabic, but it has many polysyllabic words Burmese and Shan origin. Under the influence of many years' subjugation Burma, Burmese words have been introduced and domesticated. Their rAhgious books being received from the Burmans, has been an abundant source .* the addition of Burmese and Pali words. Indeed, their religious language 18 ^ mosaic of Shan, Burmese, and Pali.* Such Shan books as are written in the ^mmon language of life, and they are few, are called " books in the colloquial Atyle.33 The greater portion, written in a style more or less metrical, are called books in the preaching style. " In these many words not employed in daily a*e used, which are called " leaves and flowers/' and sometimes this is carried j? an extent which renders what is read almost unintelligible to an ordinary nstener. Unlike Siamese, Shan has no tonal signs.
Yule divides the Shan into twelve Statesa I- Mobyay.
T AaMokmay or Moung-may. ^Monay.
a -Nyoung-yuway or Nyoung-shway.
Khyaw or koo-kie, Toung-thoo,
VIII.aKaing-ma or Maing-maing. IX.aMai ng-len g-gyi.
X.aKiang-hung. XI.aKiang-tung. XII.aKiang-khen.
The outlying tribes which, considering our present knowledge and the q tl . diversity of opinion amongst those who have
U ymg tn * investigated the question of their origin, cannot
T^ely be classed as members of any one of the main stocks, may be divided nto two classes,athose # whose tribal relations areas regards those stocks Anbtful, and those who are clearly separate. The former includesa
The Zabaing or Yabaing, ] Anoo or khoung-tso, Chin, "" "
Shandoo, and the lattera
^kA Yabaings are found on both the eastern and western flanks of the Yalt) . Pegu Yoma. Rude, wild, and ignorant, they are
B^rm amg' found only amongst the hills. Their language is
breed ^ a strong Arakanese accent. Some are cultivators and many tv silkworms. According to Dr. Mason, they are of Burmese stock; peo*view is confirmed by their language. In the eastern Yoma these ^et tribe^1 *Ure Aurman have come to be regarded as a dis-
Chins are found occupying both the eastern and western flanks of Cllin the Arakan Yoma mountains, and towards the
and cr , north of British Burma they have spread eastward,
the Irrawaddy and even the Pegu Yoma. The present Chin Sien ^ i rever,.is really the Arakan Yoma range : they are essentially hill-a^jMoundm the plains. Their own view is that they belong to the
# Mr. Cushing from British Burma Gazetteer, vol. I, page 178.# Mr. Cushing from British Burma Gazetteer, vol. I, page 178.