i40 H. Lincx Roth.aNatives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo.
them by the aborigines), but to them, and to them only, do the Malays apply the word daya, which means inland, interior, and from this word arise the names Ka-daya-an (a tribe inhabiting a branch of the Brunei) and Kayan. The Malays are known to the Sea Dyaks by the name of ' Laut to the Melanau and Kay^n tribes by the name of ' Klieng.' The Dyaks are purely distinct from the above-mentioned tribes, among whom, on the other hand, great similarity in language and customs may be traced, and who are, in all probability, aborigines of Borneo, which the Dyaks certainly are not. There are two distinct tribes of Dyaks, the Land- and Sea-Dyaks/'
Mr. A. Hart Everett is equally emphatic : " May I suggest that ethnologists should make a more sparing use of the term 4 Dyak ' when treating of the Malay Archipelago ? It should only be applied to tribes who themselves use it as the distinctive appellation of their people. As more than one tribe so uses it, there should always be prefixed some word still further limiting its application in each particular case. As employed by Malays, who are followed both by Dutch and English travellers, the word has scarcely better standing-ground in a scientific terminology than has 4 Alfuro.'
" The following fact with regard to the Sea-Dyaks may be of interest. When Europeans first entered Sarawak the Kayans, properly so called, were dominant in the great Rejang River, and the Sea-Dyaks were strictly confined to the Batang Lupar, Saribas, and Kalakah rivers. Now the Sea-Dyak population of the Rejang is some 30,000, and the Rejang Dyaks are rapidly occupying the Oyah, Mukah, and Tatau rivers further up coast. On the original Sea-Dyak rivers the people always use the expression "we Dyaks *' when they mention their own race ; but on the Rejang the expression " we Iban " will invariably be heardathe explanation being that the Kayans habitually designate Sea-Dyaks as " Ivan " among themselves, whence the Dyaks have applied the name ; but, having no v-sound in their language, they say " Iban." The Kayan proper is rich in v-sounds. I have been informed, though I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statement, that " Ivan " in Kayan is a term carrying with it a sense of opprobrium. However this may be, it is remarkable that so large a section of the Sea-Dyaks, who are so thoroughly dominant in Rejang, and are in constant daily communication with their original seat in the rivers to the westward, should in the course of some thirty years have come to habitually speak of themselves by the name given them by their foes. And it is the more surprising because the Sea-Dyaks generally give new names of their own to the geographical features of the district into which they immigrate." (Papar, North Borneo.)
" That on the Rejang the Sea Dyaks should have adopted the name given them by their enemies is very curious, but it may, as we shall see later on, help to explain their present name of Sea Dyaks. But before going into that matter let us see what Dr. A. B. Meyer says, for Dr. Meyer has very carefully examined all that has been said about the origin of the word Dyak.1 Writing in German he, of course, writes a j where we write a y ; on account of other and lesser peculiarities I have thought it better to adhere to his spelling in giving the following summary of his investigations :a
1 " Ueber die Namen Papua, Dajak und Alfuren."1 " Ueber die Namen Papua, Dajak und Alfuren."