i396 H. Lincx Roth.aNatives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo.
Seines and Nets.
Mr. T. S. Chapman, one of the ablest officials of Sarawak, describes net-fishing as follows : " On the sea for miles on either side of the mouth of the Kalaka river three kinds of nets are used, viz., istaPukat China ; 2nda Pukat Malayu, or pukat tarik ; 3rda The Sulering. The Pukat China is a net nine feet deep, and the other day I fished with one 900 feet long ; its Dyak/*^ Kuan or Shuttle.
mesh is half-an-inch long, the whole with strin^ Used in net
r . , . . T - ^ (Brooke Low Coll.)
length of its head when in the water
is supported by floats : its foot is not weighted, but drags on the bottom. It is used as follows : Having been laid on layers in a boat, and the boat having been paddled quietly in shore until sufficiently shallow for a man to stand with breast and head above water, two of the fishermen jump out, one holds the net, the other with a long pole stands ready to beat the water; the boat then paddles off nearly parallel to the shore, letting out the net as she goes on, and when all is out, another fisherman with a couple of beaters jumps into the water, the former holds the end of the net whilst the latter immediately proceeds to beat the water along the shore. The fish are roused and frightened from their favourite haunt amongst the broken water close in shore, and dart out to sea, but meeting the net are entangled in its meshes. The fishermen holding each end of the net gradually advancing to one another, the beaters contract towards the centre, which is now taken up by boat, and to which eventually both ends of the net arriveathen comes the exciting partatwo men stand up in the boat and haul in the net head and foot at the same time, laying it ready on layers for the next cast, and as the net comes in so do the fish entangled in it.
"The Pukat Malayu, or putak tarik, is a net of one. inch mesh, generally 180 feet long ; the head and foot ropes are kept apart by a series of sticks called rakohs, sixteen or eighteen inches long, fastened at intervals of about five feet ; to the head and foot ropes are fastened a number of net bags, about two feet deep, joined to one another. This net can be pulled by two men, and there is no necessity for a boat. One man enters the water up to his middle, holding one end of the net, and drags it along parallel with the shore ; another man holds the other end, and walks along the shore sufficiently quick or slow so as to permit the net to continue in a semi-circle ; after proceeding for some distance, the man in the water wades on to land, bringing his end of the net with him, and then both drag it high and dry. The fish are found securely caught in the net bags.
" The Sulering is like the pukat, but it has no bags, and is only half an inch mesh, when dragged it bellies out, and it is used for fishing the smaller kinds of fish. All the three kinds of nets are made of good strong twine and are tanned with the bark of the sumak tree, which abounds in most of our low jungles.6
5 Mr. Brooke Low speaks of the jala, or casting net, in ordinary use being made of tengang, string tanned claret colour with sumak to preserve it, and weighted with stones if nothing better is to be obtained.5 Mr. Brooke Low speaks of the jala, or casting net, in ordinary use being made of tengang, string tanned claret colour with sumak to preserve it, and weighted with stones if nothing better is to be obtained.