i8 H. LinCx Roth.aNatives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo.
both banks of which they occupy, almost as far (?) as its tributaryathe Kakus river, then along both banks of the Anap river, crossing the Rejang river above the knee, to the west of Mount Ulan Buha, straight on, crossing the Balleh river about twenty miles west of Fort Kapit and then on the Dutch frontier somewhere to the north-east of Mount Saribu Saratus. To the south the Sea Dyaks extend into Dutch territory. Their establishment in Oya, Muka, and Tatan is quite recent and since the establishment of European rule.9
" The Sea Dyaks' chief settlements and tribes are :a
Batang Lupars or Batang Ayers. The Dyaks living on the banks of the Batang Lupar from about fifty miles up that river till eighty miles up call themselves Batang Ayer, Batang meaning a trunk or main stem and Ayer water, meaning simply the main river to distinguish them from the people living on the tributaries. Towards the head of the river, the people call themselves Ulu Ayer. This nomenclature applies equally to the Rejang river.
Ballaus. On Batang Lupar and Lingga rivers, named from a hill about twenty-five miles up the Batang Lupar, a few miles above the mouth of the Lingga river. Lingga is their real centre.10 There is no Ballau river (Balleh has nothing to do with Ballau).
Skarans (Sakarangs). On tributary river of that name of the Batang Lupar.
Undops. On tributary river of that name of the Batang Lupar.11
Lcmanaks. On tributary river of that name of the Batang Lupar.
Sibuyaus. On Sibuyau river, between Sadong and Batang Lupar rivers. They call themselves Sea Dyaks, but speak that language with a peculiar accent (Sibnowans is the name given in error by Sir H. Keppel).12
9 " At the head-waters of the Muka and Oya rivers some Sea-Dayaks have settled. On the Oya river are three chiefs, with a following of perhaps 100 fighting men ; on the Muka there are four chiefs with perhaps the same following. These Dayaks have come in from the Rejang and Kanowit rivers, there being a great tendency on the part of the people of these rivers to settle in Muka and Oya." (Denison, Jour. Straits Asiatic Soc., No. 10, p. 181.)
10 " They are represented as very brave, and are engaged in ceaseless warfare with their neighbours, against whom they maintain themselves, though very inferior in number." (Sir James Brooke, Mundy, i. 236.)
11 The Undups maintain that the Ballaus were originally of their tribe, i.e., Undups. (Crossland.)
' 12 " The Samarahan was a favourite attacking ground of the pirates, and owed much of its
safety to the courage of these Dayaks, who were formerly more united than they are now. The Sibuyau are, in fact, strangers. They were harassed out of their own country by the Seribas pirates and retired to Samarahan ; they are now scattered, a section here, a larger one on the Lundu river, another at Meradang on the Quop, besides smaller villages on the Sarawak, the Sadong, and in other districts." (St. John i. 208.)
According to Sir Hugh Low these people "came originally from the country situated about the sources of the western branch of the Batang Lupar in the direction of the Lake Danau Malayau." (p. 166.)