ant but less lofty vegetation. We passed a torrent of water which is not much lower than the boiling-point, and has a most singular appearance as it foams over its rugged bed, Bending up clouds of steam, and often concealed by the overhanging herbage of ferns and lycopodia, which here thrive with more luxuriance than elsewhere.
At about 1500 feet we came to another hut of open bamboos, at a place called Kandang Badak, or a Rhinoceros-field,a which we were going to make our temporary abode. Here was a small clearing, with abundance of tree-ferns and some young plantations of Cinchona. As -there was now a thick mist and drizzling rain, I did not attempt to go on to the summit that evening, but made two visits to it during my stay, as well as one to the active crater of Gedeh. This is a vast semicircular chasm, bounded by black perpendicular walls of rock, and surrounded by miles of rugged scoria-covered slopes. The crater itself is not wery deep. It exhibits patches of sulphur and variously-colored volcanic products, and emits from several vents continual streams of smoke and vapor. The extinct cone of Pangerango was to me more interesting. The summit is an irregular undulating plain with a low bordering ridge, and one deep lateral chasm. Unfortunately there was perpetual mist and rain either above or below us all the time I was on the mountain ; so that I never once saw the plain below, or had a glimpse of the magnificent view which in fine weather is to be obtained from its summit. Notwithstanding this drawback I enjoyed the excursion exceedingly, for it was the first time I had been high enough on a mountain near the Equator to watch the change from a tropical to a temperate flora. I will now briefly sketch these changes as I observed them in Java.
On ascending the mountain, we first meet with temperate forms of herbaceous plants so low as 3000 feet, where strawberries and violets begin to grow, but the former are tasteless, and the latter have very small and pale flowers. Weedy Composite also begin to give a European aspect to the wayside herbage. It is between 2000 and 5000 feet that the forests and ravines exhibit the utmost development of tropical luxuriance and beauty. The abundance of noble tree-