The British occupation was effected in stages, and by arrangement rather than by conquest. The Malays ceded Penang in 1786, the Dutch yielded up Malacca and the Dindings in 1824, Singapore was acquired from the Malays in 1819, Perak became British-protected in 1872, Selangor in 1874, Negri Sembilan in 1874 and Pahang in 1888. The last four States federated themselves under British protection in 1897. Siam in 1909 ceded to Great Britain her suzerainty over Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu and Perils. Singapore, Penang, Malacca and the Dindings form the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements, and are British territory. Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang are Malay territory, and form the Federated Malay States. Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu and Perlis are called simply Malay States.
Both the Colony of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States are divided into administrative districts, whose District Officers are responsible to the Governor, if in the Colony, and to the four British Residents, if in the Federated Malay States. The four Residents are responsible to the Chief Secretary to Government, and he to
the High Commissioner for the Malay States (Governor of the Straits Settlements). In the other Malay States are stationed a few British officials whose powers are at present chiefly advisory.
The principal seaports for ocean-going traffic are Singapore (14,088.775 tons), Penang (4,009,126 tons), and Port Swettenham (682,605 tons).
The country produces areca-nuts, coffee, copra, fish, gambier, rubber, gutta, gold, rice, pepper, sugar, tapioca, tin, tin-ore and wolfram.
Its population consists of Malays, Chinese, Indians of all races, Siamese, Japanese, Arabs, Sinhalese, Annamese, Burmese, Europeans and Eurasians.
The principal towns are Singapore (380,392), Penang (152,642), Kuala Lumpur (67,997), Ipoh (34.34A ). Taiping (25,325), Malacca (153,008), Seremban (14,987), and in them all the wants of western travellers can be at once supplied. There are hotels in many of the towns, and resthouses upkept by the Government in those of them that have no hotels.
Railway Offices, Penang.