rising from the sea. Eastern Siam is a flat shallow basin hedged by hills, whilst Southern Siam is flat where it does not consist of the spine of mountains, a continuation of the mountains of the British-Malayan part of the Peninsula. Its longest river is the Menam Chow Phya, some 250 miles. In prehistoric times the whole country was doubtless covered with heavy jungle. In Southern Siam much of this was swept away by a cyclone some forty years ago, and much of it has disappeared before the cultivator and the tin miner. In Central Siam the cultivation of rice has ousted the forest, but Northern Siam is still a forest land, producing the valuable teak timber, whilst in Eastern Siam there is still very much jungle left. Siama s climate is tropical, mitigated by a very distinct cool season in Central and Eastern, and a positively cold season in Northern Siam. It has a heavy but variable rainy season, and depends on this for water for the irrigation of the rice fields. But the climate
Lao Song Dham Women.
Talat Noi Studio. Lawa Women.
is nowhere, except in Eastern Siam, oppressively hot, unless for a few weeks in the height of the hot season. Temperatures are for Central Siam between February, March and October, during the blowing of the south and south-west monsoon wind, and covering both the hot and the rainy seasons, 98A and 79 A , in the cold season between October and February, under the north-east wind, 92 0 and 54 A . Bangkok, however, can reach 106A during the hot season. Northern Siam experiences temperatures 30 higher at midday and 40 lower during the night than those of Central Siam. Eastern Siam is unhealthily extreme in temperature, whilst in Southern Siam the most agreeable temperatures prevail, ranging between 68A and 95 A . Hot weather, Februarya March to May, rains, June to October, and cold weather, November, December, January, February-March are the divisions of the year for Northern, Eastern and Central Siam, whilst Southern Siam has a hot weather from February to August and rains from September to January. The climate south of Chumphon is without any real cold season