TWO YEARS IN THE JUNGLE.
vated fields to be trespassed upon, elephants cannot be turned loose at night to browse at will, but must be furnished with a daily supply of green fodder, grass, leaves, sugar-cane, or in lieu of that, dry fodder, in a smaller quantity. The daily government allowance in Bengal is 400 pounds of green fodder, or 240 pounds of dry, while in Madras it is only 250 pounds and 125 pounds respec^ tively for elephants of the same size and internal capacity. Mr. Sanderson has proven, by careful experiments in feeding elephants, that the government allowance in both the Presidencies is wholly insufficient for the actual wants of the animal. He found that during eight consecutive days, eight female elephants consumed a daily average of 650 pounds of green fodder each, and a large tusker consumed 800 pounds of the same food in eighteen hours. In addition to this the animals had each 18 pounds of grain daily.
The following figures show the cost of keeping an adult female elephant in the Madras Commissariat Department, per month:
1 maliout (driver)...................................9 Rupees.
1 grass-cutter.......................................6 44
25 pounds rice per diem (30 pounds per rupee)........25 a
Salt, oil, and medicines.............................2 a
Fodder, average monthly purchase...................6 a
The rupee is equal to about forty-four cents in gold, which would make the cost of keeping an elephant about $21.12 per month in our currency.
Male elephants which have passed the age of puberty, twenty years or thereabouts, are subject to fits of a must/a or temporary insanity, when they are not sufficiently worked or exercised, and sometimes even when they are. According to all accounts, elephants of advanced age are most subject to these dangerous paroxysms, and the fits vary in duration from four or five weeks to four or five months. They also vary in intensity from dull lethargy in one animal, to the most murderous fury in another. The approach of a must a is indicated by the discharge of a peculiar yellow matter from a small orifice behind the eye, upon the appearance of which the elephant is closely watched, if not chained up altogether.
An elephant in a violent fit of a musta sometimes becomes the incarnation of murderous and destructive deviltry. Many of the so-called a rogue a elephants are, no doubt, old males who from over-eating and lazy habits have been attacked by fits of a must.a Sanderson mentions an elephant at Mandla, near Jubbulpore, which