being less than that of any of the other males. These conditions are usually concomitant, as was shown by Professor Wiesbach, and are indications of a skull not having attained its full development, as in this case, or of the permanent retention of a child-like character when occurring in the fully adult skull, as is not uncommon in women. Epiteric bones are present in three of the female crania, Nos. 1, 7. and 9. In the male skull No. 10 the squamosals articulate with the frontal, the alA sphenoid not intervening between them, as is usually the case. The zygomatic arches can be seen in most instances projecting beyond the Outline of the cranium in the fronto parietal regiona that is to say, the skulls are usually phA nozygous, though more so in some cases than in others. In order to estimate the amount of zygomatic projection, or the relation of the maximum cranio-facial breadth to the fronto parietal breadth at the stephanion, Topinard has suggested the formation of an index from the bi-zygorratie and bi-stephanic breadths, in place of the angle of Quatrefages, which can only be measured by means of a complicated goniometer. Taking the former breadth as 100,1 find that the bi-zvgostephanic index of the brachycephalic male skulls averages 87 6, and of the female 87*4, and of the dolichocephalic female 94a 2.
In order to compare these averages with those of other races, I have forked this out in the series of Andamanese skulls and of Fijians published by Professor Flower in the volumes of the a Journal of the Anthropological Institute a for 1879 and 1880, and the following are tho results obtained : a
Andamanese .. 12 malt s, 88 3 ; 12 females, 91 5.
Timor-laut .. 3 a 87*(A ; 5 a 87*4.
Fijian .. .. G a 80*4; 5 a 85*5.
Before its value can be rightly estimated it will require to be worked out in a much more extended series. It may be stated, however, that crania with a bi-zygostephanic index of under 90 are phA nozygus. The development of the inion is usually represented by Brocaa s descriptive figures 1 or 2. Though not very prominent the inion and the inner or mesial extremities of the superior curved lines are well developed and rugged, a condition to which, Professor Thane kindly reminded me, Professor Ecker has attributed considerable importance as being indicative of a simian character, these ridges being the representative in man of the crests so ^ell marked in the skull of the orang-outan and other anthropomorphous apes. The sutures are, as a rule, simple, varying in the series from 1 to of Brocas numbers, both in regard to complexity and degree of obliteration. In the dolichocephalic female the frontal suture is metopic (.see p. 315), but in none of the other skulls does this condition obtain. Ihe wormian bones are small in most instances. All the brachycephalic Skulls of both sexes exhibit more or less flattening in the occipital or Parieto-occipital region, such as would be produced by laying an infant, ithout any soft material under the head, in a cradle, like that exhibited Forbes from Timor-laut. The dolichocephalic female and 'oSi* S s^u^s shA w no sign of flattening. The basilar suture is entirely , iterated in all instances except in the youth ; no abnormality is to be bA erved in any case in the under surface of the tranium.
fjxonal characters offacial portion.a In most instances^ the face has a at appearance. The axes of the orbits are in some instances more orizontal than in others. The inter-orbital portion, though not showing Pre at variation in actual width, differs in form on account of the projec-011 of thp nasal bones being greater, and the ascending process of tho