THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS
the New World, and that filled their hearts with zeal and courage to face the dangers of the great lone ocean in company with Villalobos and Legspi.
The Order traces its inception to the town of Hippo, and fixes the date at A.D. 395. Many, doubtless, were its vicissitudes, but in the year 1061, and again in 1214, we find the Order remodelled and extended. The Augustinians were very numerous in England and Scotland. In 1105 they had settled at Colchester and at Nostell, near Ponte-fract. Later they had abbeys at Bristol, Llantony, Christ-church, Twynham, Bolton and London, where part of their church (Austin Friars) is still standing. Altogether they had 170 houses in England. Their first house in Scotland was at Scone in 1114, and they soon had 25 houses, including churches or abbeys at Inchcolm in the Firth of Forth, St Andrew's, Holyrood, Cambuskenneth and Inchaffray.
The Austin Friars or Black Canons were then described as an order of regular clergy holding a middle position between monks and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish priests living under rule, and they have retained these characteristics to the present day.
They were numerous in Spain, and some of the other Orders, such as the Dominicans or Preaching Friars, the Franciscans, and the Recollets, may almost be looked upon as offshoots of this venerable order, for they conformed to its general rule, with certain additions. Thus the Dominicans, founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman, were incorporated in 1216 by a Bull of Pope Honorius III. and adopted a rule of absolute poverty or mendicancy in addition to the usual vows of chastity and obedience.
This Order held its first chapter in 1220 at Bologna, under the presidency of its founder.
The vows of poverty of this powerful Order have not prevented it from holding large estates in the Philippines, from owning blocks of buildings in Manila and Hong Kong, and from having a huge sum invested in British and American securities. These however belong to the Corporation and not to the individual members.
From Spain the Augustinians spread to Mexico and assisted the Franciscans, who were the pioneers there under Father Bartolom de Olmdo and Father Martin de Valencia, to gather in the abundant harvest. Father Toribio de Benavnte was one of twelve Franciscans sent out in 1523,From Spain the Augustinians spread to Mexico and assisted the Franciscans, who were the pioneers there under Father BartolomA(c) de OlmA(c)do and Father Martin de Valencia, to gather in the abundant harvest. Father Toribio de BenavA(c)nte was one of twelve Franciscans sent out in 1523,