IO THE INHABITANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES
The above figures are taken from the official census of 1877.
This is the latest I have been able to find.
In the Appendix is given an estimate of the population in 1890, the author puts the number at 8,000,000, and at this date there may well be 9,000,000 inhabitants in the Philippines and Sulus.
It will be seen that these provinces are of very different extent, and vary still more in population, for some have only a few hundred inhabitants, whilst others, for instance, Cebu and Ilo-Ilo have half-a-million.
Each province was under a Governor, either civil or military. Those provinces which were entirely pacified had Civil Governors, whilst those more liable to disturbance or attack from independent tribes or from the Moors had Military Governors. Up to 1886 the pacified provinces were governed by Alcaldes-May ores, who were both governors and judges. An appeal from their decisions could be made to the Audiencia or High Court at Manila.
From the earliest times of their appointment, the Alcaldes were allowed to trade. Some appointments carried the right to trade, but most of the Alcaldes had to covenant to forego a large proportion of their very modest stipends in order to obtain this privilege. By trade and by the fees and squeezes of their law courts they usually managed to amass fortunes. In 1844 the Alcaldes were finally prohibited from trading.
This was a rude system of government, but it was cheap, and a populous province might only have to maintain half-a-dozen Spaniards.
Each town has its municipality consisting of twelve principales, all natives, six are chosen from those who have already been Gobernadorcillos. They are called past-captains, and correspond to aldermen who have passed the chair. The other six are chosen from amongst the Baran-gay headmen. From these twelve are elected all the officials, the Gobernadorcillo or Capitan, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd lieutenants, the alguaciles (constables), the judges of the fields, of cattle, and of police. The Capitan appoints and pays the directorcillo or town clerk, who attends to the routine business.
For the maintenance of order, and for protecting the town against attack, there is a body of local police called Cuadrilleros. These are armed with bolos and lances inFor the maintenance of order, and for protecting the town against attack, there is a body of local police called Cuadrilleros. These are armed with bolos and lances in