312 THF. INHABITANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES
are easily killed, the women and children, with the other booty, being carried off by the assailants. Under this reign of terror the population is diminishing. These people not only kill for booty, but also for the honour and glory of it Each warrior is anxious to become a bagani, and to be allowed to wear the honourable insignia of that rank. The dress of a bagani indicates approximately the number of murders he has committed. A scarlet head-cloth shows that he has killed from five to ten men ; a red shirt, in addition, from ten to twenty, whilst a complete suit of red shows that he has murdered more than twenty persons, and is a much-desired and very honourable distinction, a sort of D.S.O. or K.C.B. amongst them.
All the dattos are baganis ; they could hardly possess enough prestige to govern their scopes without this title.
The Mandayas are superstitious, and much attached to their own beliefs, and on this account it is difficult to convert them to Christianity. The devotion of the Jesuits, however, has not been in vain, and several pueblos on the east coast round about Bislig, Caraga, and Cateel-Baganga are now inhabited by Christian Mandayas, some of whom have intermarried with the Visayas, or "old Christians." These Mandayas are now safe from attack. They give their attention to cultivation, and are increasing in numbers and rising in the scale of civilisation.
Ancestral-worship is their religion, and their Dinatas, or wooden idols, are stained red with the sap of the narra tree. They have priestesses whom they call Bailanes, and they are said to occasionally make human sacrifices.
As amongst other tribes in Mindanao, the Limbncun, or turtle-dove, is a sacred bird, and rice and fruit is placed for its use on a small raised platform, and it is never molested.
They are organised in a strict feudal system, the headman or datto of each village is in fact the only free man of his clan. The others are Sicopesathat is, followers or vassals who, as well as the datto, possess slaves. A Mandaya datto can seldom raise more than fifty spears ; sometimes two or three federate, but expeditions on a large scale cannot be undertaken, for it would be impossible to feed several hundred men in their country, such is the poverty of the inhabitants.
Sometimes a small group of Mandaya dattos recognises as suzerain some neighbouring datto of the piratical Moros, who always tries to keep them isolated and to prevent anySometimes a small group of Mandaya dattos recognises as suzerain some neighbouring datto of the piratical Moros, who always tries to keep them isolated and to prevent any