312 THF. INHABITANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES
heathen in one year, and now no less than twenty Christian towns or villages stand on the banks of the River Agusan and its tributaries, populated by perhaps fifteen thousand Manobos, formerly heathens, who have given up their detestable practices and their murderous slave-raids to occupy themselves in cultivating the soil, whilst their children of both sexes are receiving instruction from Visaya school-masters and mistresses. There is always a tendency to remontar amongst them, and sometimes nearly all the inhabitants of a village take to tl^ woods and hills. Yet, secure from attack, the number of converts steadily increases. The Baganis have become gobernadorcillos, and their chief vassals tenientes, jueces de paz, and cuadrilleros. Some of the old Baganis who were well off were so anxious not to be behind the Visayas, that they sent to Manila for hats, black cloth coats and trousers, and patent leather shoes, to wear on the great feasts of the Church, and on the occasion of the annual village festival.
This is a long way from human sacrifices to the Tag-Busan, and ceremonial cannibal rites, which these men formerly practised. I look on this warlike and vigorous race as capable of becoming valuable citizens, but they will require careful handling for some years to come. They must not be rushed, for, if alarmed by innovations, they may take to the woods en masse; and the labour of years will have been wasted.
I look to this tribe, when trained to use fire-arms, and stiffened with a few Americans, to destroy the power of the pirate racesathe murderous, slave-hunting Moros, with whom it is useless to make treaties, who cannot be converted till the power of their dattos is broken, and who must be sternly put down by force unless the nascent civilisation of Mindanao is to be thrown back for a century.
In the beginning of June, 1892, a Bagani of the Manobos performed the paghuaga, or human sacrifice, on a hill opposite Veruela, on the River Agusan. The victim was a Christian girl whom he had bought for the purpose from some slave-raiders.
The Mandayas live on the Eastern Cordillera of Mindanao which runs parallel to the coast, and their territory extends from the 7th to the 9th parallel. They occupy the countryThe Mandayas live on the Eastern Cordillera of Mindanao which runs parallel to the coast, and their territory extends from the 7th to the 9th parallel. They occupy the country