114 THF. INHABITANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES
vague generalities which the Tagals could not be expected to accept.
As regards the second point, I regret that I am not personally acquainted with the gentlemen from Nebraska, Colorado, Dakota and other states serving in the United States Army or volunteers. I have no doubt that they are good fighting-men, but from all I can hear about them they are not conspicuous for strict military discipline, and too many of them have erroneous ideas as to the most suitable drink for a tropical climate.
Manila was in the time of the Spaniards a most temperate city ; a drunken man was a very rare sight, and would usually be a foreign sailor. Since the American occupation, some hundreds of drinking saloons have been opened, and daily scenes of drunkenness and debauchery have filled the quiet natives with alarm and horror. When John L. Motley wrote his scathing denunciation of the army which the great Duke of Alva led from Spain into the Low Countries, " to enforce the high religious purposes of Philip II., he could not foresee that his words would be applicable to an American Army sent to subjugate men struggling to be free " for their welfare, not our gain/' nor that this army, besides bringing in its train a flood of cosmopolitan harlotry,* would be allowed by its commander to inaugurate amongst a strictly temperate people a mad saturnalia of drunkenness that has scarcely a parallel.
Such, however, is undoubtedly the case, and I venture to think that these occurrences have confirmed many of the Tagals in their resolve rather to die fighting for their independence than to be ruled over by such as these.
More important still was it to take care that the Tagal insurrection should not have been in vain. That rebellion probably cost fifty thousand human lives, immense loss of property, and untold misery. It was fought against the friars and was at last triumphant. The Spanish friars had been expelled and their lands confiscated. Were the Americans to bring them back and guarantee them in peaceable possession, once more riveting on the chain the Tagals had torn off ?
* The Abb de Brantme, whose appreciative remarks upon the courtesans who accompanied the Army of the Duke of Alva are quoted by Motley in ' The Rise of the Dutch Republic,* would have been delighted to take up his favourite subject and chronicle the following of the American Army.* The AbbA(c) de BrantA me, whose appreciative remarks upon the courtesans who accompanied the Army of the Duke of Alva are quoted by Motley in ' The Rise of the Dutch Republic,* would have been delighted to take up his favourite subject and chronicle the following of the American Army.