OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
Another singular race, called the Tinguianes, inhabit principally the district called El Abra, on the island of Luzon. They were nominally under the control of the Spaniards, who appointed their head men or chiefs petty governors of villages or ranches on the system that prevailed in other subdued districts. On becoming invested with the duties of office, it was the custom of the chief to take an oath in the following form: a May a pernicious wind touch me, may a flash of lightning kill me, and may the alligator catch me asleep, if I fail to fulfill my duty.a There are no records of malfeasance in office among the Tinguianes, and if this rectitude of behavior is to be attributed to the peculiarity of the oath, it might be a stroke of wisdom to require a similar obligation from all office-holders; though it is believed by some that neither a stroke of [lightning nor a wideawake alligator would prevent the average specimen of this tribe of gentry from stealing. Notwithstanding their obligation the head men were very independent in their manner of performing the duties of their office, presenting them-
guilty, though quite a number of their old men possess the peculiar requisite of guilt.
They are pagans, but have no temples. Their gods are hidden in the mountain cavities. Like many other religionists, they believe in the efficacy of prayer for the supply of their material wants. Hence, if there be too great an abundance of rain, or too little, or an epidemic disease rages, or there is any calamity affecting the community in general, the anitos (idols) are carried around and exhorted (like the saints of the Roman Catholic Church), whilst nature continues her uninterrupted course. The minister of anito is also appealed to when a child is to be named. The infant is carried into the woods, and the pagan priest pronounces the name, whilst he raises a bohie-knife over the new-born creaturea s head. On lowering the knife, he strikes at a tree. If the tree emits sap, the first name uttered stands good; if not, the ceremony is repeated, and each time the name is changed until the oozing sap denotes the will of the deity.
ENJOYING LIFE IN THE PHILIPPINES.
American soldiers generally contrive to have a good time, regardless of their surroundings, and those represented in this photograph are no exception to the
rule. They are a summering in the country,a and enjoying life.
selves only when they chose, to the nearest Spanish governor, who issued orders that were fulfilled only according to the traditional customs of the tribe. Thus, the head man, on his return to the ranch, delegated his powers to the council of elders, and according to their decision he acted as their executive. They preferred their own laws to those of the Spanish code, and were governed by them under all the conditions to which they would apply.
They punish adultery by a fine of thirty dollars and divorce, or, if the crime is mutual, the fine is remitted. When a man is brought to justice on an accusation which he denies, a handful of straw is burnt in his presence, after which he is required to hold up an earthenware pot and repeat the following asseveration: a May my belly be converted into a pot like this, if I have done the thing of which I am accused.a If his periphery remains unchanged, he is declared innocent and allowed to go free; and it is a remarkable fact that in all their criminal records not a single Tinguiane has been adjudged
The Tinguianes are monogamists, and are generally forced by their parents to marry before the age of puberty; but the bridegroom or his father or elder has to purchase the bride at a price mutually agreed upon by the relatives. They live in bamboo cabins built on posts, or in trees sixty to seventy feet from the ground, whence they defend themselves from their traditional enemies, the Guinaanes, by heaving stones upon their heads and piercing them with their lances. In the more secure neighborhoods, however, they build their huts like the other natives, and in the door and window openings they hang the skulls of buffaloes and horses as amulets.
Physically the Tinguianes are of fine form, with aquiline noses and shapely features. They wear their hair in a tuft on the crown, like the Japanese, but their features are more like those of the better class of Tagalogs. They are very fond of music and personal adornment. They also tattoo themselves and black their