OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
AMERICAN BATTERY IN ACTION NEAR CAVITE-
their protestations of wishing to benefit the race they sought to subdue. The enterprise ignominiously failed; the costly undertaking was an inglorious and fruitless one, except to the General, whoa being under royal favor since at Sagunta, in 1875, he a pronounceda for King Alphonso a secured for himself the title of Count of La Union.
Since this event, the Igorrotes have been less approachable to Europeans, whom they naturally regard with every feeling of distrust. Rightly or wrongly (if it can be a matter of opinion), they fail to see any manifestation of ultimate advantage to themselves in the arrival of a troop of armed strangers who demand from them food (even though it be on payment) and perturbate their most intimate family ties.
To roam at large in their mountain home is far more enjoyable to them than having to wear clothes; presenting themselves often, if not to habitually reside, in villages; having to pay taxes, for which they would get little returna not even the boon of good highroadsa and acting as unsalaried tax collectors, with the chance of fine, punishment and ruin if they did not succeed in bringing funds to the public treasury; and these were all the advantages of civilization that the Spaniards had to offer them.
As to Christianity, as taught by the priests, they were wholly unable to appreciate its mysteries. It would be as hard a task to convince them of what Catholicism deems indispensable for the salvation of the soul, as it would be to convert Americans to the teachings of Buddha; and many of the deeds of the Spanish officials were so contrary to the teachings of the religion they professed, that the Igorrotes were unable to reconcile the discrepancies. Foreman relates that, being in Tuguegarao, the capital of Cagayan Province, about sixty miles up the Rio Grande, he went to visit the prisons, where he saw many of the worst types of Igorrotes. He was told that a priest who had endeavored to teach them the precepts of Christianity, and had explained to them the marvelous life of Saint Augustine, was dismayed to hear an Igorrote exclaim that no colored man ever became a white mana s saint. Nothing could convince him that an exception to the rule might be possible. Could experience have revealed to him the established facta the remarkable anomalya that the grossest forms of immorality were to be found in the trail of the highest order of the white mana s civilization ?
Specimens of the different tribes and races of these Islands were on view at the Philippine Exhibition, held in Madrid in 1887. Some of them consented to receive Christian baptism before returning home, but it was publicly stated that the Igorrotes were among those who positively refused to abandon their own belief.
Associated with the Igorrotes is a tribe of half-castes, called Igor-rote-Chinese, who are supposed to be descendants of the followers of the pirate Li-Ma-Hong, who, when abandoned by their leader in 1574, fled to the mountains and allied themselves with the Igorrotes. Their intermarriage with this tribe has generated a species of people quite unique in character. Their customs are much the same as the pure Igorrotes, but with their fierceness is blended the cunning and astuteness of the Mongol, and while this intelligence may be often misapplied, it raises them above the pure natives. This Igorrote-Chinese race is so unique as to possess more than the average interest of wild peoples. It is without competition in its particular line, for there is not another similar tribe of people on the face of the globe.
FILIPINO BOYS AND CARABOA.
The caraboas, or water buffaloes, become very tame, and are used for riding as well as for draft animals. In this photograph the boys are bringing wild grass from the woods to the market at Manila.