OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
one head to his credit. This practice prevails at the season of the year when the a fire-treea is in bloom, a very unhealthy season for all enemies of the Gaddanes who happen to be within their reach at that particular time. The flowers of this tree are of a fiery red hue, and their appearance is the signal for this tribe to collect its trophies and celebrate certain religious and social rites. All travelers are warned not to remain in the country of the Gaddanes until the fire-tree blossoms. The arms of this tribe consist of long lances with trident prongs, and arrows carrying at the point two rows of teeth, made of flint or sea-shells. They are deadly weapons in the hands of those who know how to use them, and are employed by the Gaddanes in hunting and fishing, as well as in war.
There are a number of other head-hunting tribes on the islands, the principal of whom are the Altasanes and Apayaos.
Residing in the north of Luzon, near the country of the Gaddanes, and along the banks of the Cagayan River, is a tribe of domesticated natives called Ibanacs. Their skins are almost jet black, and they live principally by agriculture.
Their form, however, is not at all graceful. Like all the races of the Philippines, they are indolent to the greatest degree. Their huts are built beehive fashion, and they creep into them like quadrupeds. They cannot be persuaded to embrace the Western system of civilization. Adultery is little known, but if it occurs, the dowery is returned and the divorce is settled. Polygamy seems to be permitted, but little practiced. Murders are common, and if a member of one hut or family group is killed, that family avenges itself on one of the murderera s kinsmen, hence those who might have to a pay the pipera are interested in maintaining order. In the Province of La Isabela, the Negrito and Igorrote tribes keep a regular debit and credit account of heads.
Their aggressions on the coast settlers have been frequent for centuries past. From time to time they come down from their mountain retreat to steal cattle and effects belonging to the domesticated population. The first regular attempt to chastise them for these inroads, and afterward gain their submission, was in the time of Governor Arandia (1754-1759), when a plan was concerted
RAILROADING IN THE PHILIPPINES.
Tramway and cars built by the soldiers, and the motive power supplied by native ponies.
The Itavis inhabit the territory south of the Gaddanes, whom they resemble in appearance and mode of living, though they are by no means so fierce and warlike. Their occasional assaults on other tribes are attributed to a spirit of retaliation, rather than a desire for bloodshed. They wear their hair shorter than their northern neighbors, and their skin is not so dark.
The Igorrotes are a fine-looking race, and one of the most interesting on the islands. They are spread over the northern half of Luzon, and cultivate sugar cane, rice and sweet potatoes; but no efforts have yet been successful in inducing them to abandon their savage customs for civilization.
They wear their hair long. At the back it hangs down to the shoulders, whilst it is cut shorter in front, and is allowed to nearly cover the forehead like a long fringe. Some of them, settled in the districts of Lepanto and El Abra, have a little hair on the chin and upper lip. Their skin is of a dark copper tinge. They have flat noses, thick lips, high cheek-bones, and their broad shoulders and limbs seem to denote great strength.
to attack them simultaneously from all sides with 1,080 men. Their ranches and crops were laid waste, and many Igorrotes were taken prisoners, but the ultimate idea of securing their allegiance was abandoned as an impossibility.
In 1881 General Primo de Rivera, at the head of a large armed force, invaded their district with the view of reducing them to obedience, but it was all to no purpose, and the result of the expedition was apparently more disadvantageous than otherwise to the project of bringing this tribe under Spanish dominion and of opening up their country to trade and enlightened intercourse. The expeditionary forces were not sufficiently large, or in a condition to successfully carry on a wTar to be immediately followed up by a military system of government; on the other hand, the feeble efforts displayed to conquer them served only to demonstrate the impotence of the Europeans. This gave the tribes courage to defend their liberty, whilst the license indulged in by the white men at the expense of the mountaineersa and boasted of by many Spanish officersa had merely the effect of raising the veil from