OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
RAILROAD BRIDGE NEAR BULACAN, BLOWN UP BY THE FILIPINOS.
which hut was allotted to the newly-married couple, but were given to understand that until the sun had reappeared five times they would spend their honeymoon in the mountains.
a After the ceremony was concluded, several men present began to make their usual mountain call. In the lowlands, the same peculiar cry serves to bring home straggling domestic animals to their nocturnal resting-place.a
There is a remnant of Negritos still living in Mariveles Mountain, on the west side of Manila Bay, near its mouth; but these people are rapidly disappearing from Luzon Island as a distinct tribe, and, with the exception of this remnant, they are confined to the interior sections. In the island of Negros and elsewhere to the south they are more numerous, and in the former, under Spanish rule, they became partly civilized and engaged quite extensively in agriculture. But they were cruelly treated by their white masters, who contrived to absorb the fruits of their industry by excessive taxation. Those who did not pay their taxes promptly were arrested and flogged in the most unmerciful manner with heavy rattans, the punishment frequently resulting in death or permanent injury. The Spaniards used an ingenious contrivance, composed of the bejuco, or jungle-rope rattan, for catching the delinquents. This growth is as tough and strong as a rope, and has a long stem of uniform diameter from the root to the tip. It increases in length, but gains nothing in thickness. It terminates in a crown of leaves, from among which protrude a number of long, flexible and very strong processes, slender as heavy twine and circled at intervals of an inch or two with recurved thorns, sharp and stout as darning needles. Bunches of these thorn-tipped rattans were fastened on a crossbar at the end of a long bamboo pole, and thrown forward like whips to catch and hold escaping taxpayers. The thorns would sink into the flesh and hold fast like a cluster of fish-hooks, and there was no escape, for the struggles of the victim served only to force the thorns deeper into his quivering flesh. Prof. Worcester thus describes the mode of using these instruments:
a The hunting down of unfortunates who were in debt to the government was a regular Sunday morning pastime at Dumaguete. A squad of cuadmlleros wTould go out, armed with the barbarous contrivances above described, sur-
round the house of their man, and call on him to surrender. If he attempted to escape, one or more of the a man-catchersa was flopped against him, and after that he had other things to think of.
a When the aiadrilleros returned with their morninga s catch, there followed a scene which was not pleasant to look upon. Each captive was compelled to strip to the waist and lie down on a bench, where he wras flogged in a most scientific manner. The stripes were inflicted with a rattan which cut the skin and brought blood with the first blow, and were laid on diagonally across the back, first from the right side, then from the left, thus forming a pleasing checkerboard pattern.
a We were often forced to witness these cruel whippings during our stay. Some of the victims lay still and bore their torture in silence; others cried out, and threw themselves from the bench with every blow. If they made too much trouble in this way, they were tied in place. After the whipping they were shut into the jail beneath the tribunal, and kept there until relatives and friends paid their debts. If there was too much delay, another whipping followed. Men sometimes died from the effects of these beatings, and women were subjected to the same inhuman treatment as men.a
FORT MALATE, NEAR MANILA. SHOWING FORM OF SPANISH TRENCHES.
WILLIAM W. GRAYSON, OF ST. LOUIS. MO.
The man who fired the first shot in the war with the Filipinos. He was a member of the 1st Nebraska Regiment at the time.
The Gaddanes, another wild race, occupy the extreme northwest portions of Luzon Island. They are wholly uncivilized and fierce in disposition. The Spaniards entertained so great a dread of their ferocity that they never made any attempt to subdue them. The Gaddanes have a fine physical bearing; wear long hair down to the shoulders, are of a very dark color, and live chiefly on roots, mountain rice, game, wild fruits and fish. They are regarded as the only really warlike and aggressive nomads of the North, and are universally dreaded. Head-hunting is one of their customs. Young men desiringio marry are expected to present sires of their intended brides as many heads severed from the trunks of their enemies as they can overcome, as an evidence of their manliness and courage. It is considered impossible for a young Gaddane to find a bride until he has at least