OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
NATIVE COCK FIGHT.
tribes of the group than any other nation. They are the Anglo-Saxons of the archipelago. The proper disposition of the Philippine question would be local self-government, with the Monroe Doctrine extended so as to cover and protect the islands and their people from European and Asiatic rapacity. Such an arrangement would give Americans the lead in their commercial and manufacturing interests, without the responsibility, expense and demoralization incident to a perpetual war of subjection, such as Spain waged for four centuries.
The Tagalogs number between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000, and their language is the chief one spoken in the archipelago. There are, however, more than thirty other languages, or dialects, of which the following are the principal:
Calamian, spoken by five thousand inhabitants of the Calamianes group, north of Palawan. Ibanag, claimed to be used by 60,000 people in the provinces of Caganyan and Isabela (in the island of Luzon), and in the Batan group, between Luzon and Formosa. Zambal, spoken by about 75,000 in the province of Zambales, northwest of the island of Luzon. Pampango, spoken by about 200,000 in Pampanga, north of Manila. Pangasinan, spoken by about 300,000 people in the province of Pangasinan, in the northwest of the island of Luzon. The New Testament has been translated into this language. Vicol, or Bicol, is spoken by about 325,000 throughout the southern portion of Luzon. At the time this was written a translation of the Gospel of Luke into this language was in press. Hocan is used by about 360,000 along the northwest coast of the island of
leading language of the archipelago. It has a literature into which many of the worlda s standard works have been translated. In addition to their own language, the Tagalogs usually speak Spanish, and many of the educated classes also speak English, French or German. An American civil official, writing of these people, says:
a As seen in the provinces of Cavite and Manila, the natives (Tagalogs) are of small stature, averaging probably 5 feet 4 inches in height and 120 pounds in weight for the women. Their skin is coppery brown, somewhat darker than that of a mulatto. They seem to be industrious and hard-working, although less so than the Chinese. By the Spaniards they are considered indolent, crafty, untruthful, treacherous, cowardly and cruel; but the hatred between the Spaniards and the native races is so intense and bitter that the Spanish opinion of the natives is of little or 110 value. To us they seemed industrious and docile, but there were occasional evidences of deceit and untruthfulness in their dealings with us. The bulk of the population is engaged in agriculture, and there were hardly any evidences of manufactures,
FILIPINO PRISONERS CAPTURED FROM AGUINALDOa S ARMY.
arts or mining. The greater number seemed to be able to read and write, but I have been unable to obtain any exact figures on this subject. They are all devout Roman Catholics, although they hate the monastic orders. In Manila (and doubtless also
Luzon. This language has attracted a good deal of attention, and it has a literature of its own.
Cebuan is spoken by about 500,000 in the island of Cebu and in a portion of Negros. In the latter there is also an aboriginal dialect called Panayan, but it is gradually giving way to Cebuan. The Visayan is spoken by about 2,000,000 and is common to most of the central portions of the archipelago. It has been reduced to writing and has a grammar. But the Tagalog, as previously stated, is the
NATIVE BOAT ON THE PASIG RIVER.
The natives who appear in this photograph belong to the Negrito tribe, whose history and peculiarities are fully described in the text matter. A cane and a high hat are marks of distinction among these people.
in Cebu and Iloilo) are many thousands of educated natives, who are merchants, lawyers, doctors and priests. They are well informed and have accumulated property. They have not traveled much, but there is said to be quite a numerous colony of rich