OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
u If one pays a native twenty cents for a service performed, and that be exactly the customary remuneration, he will say nothing, but if a feeling of compassion impels one to pay thirty cents, the recipient will loudly protest that.he ought to be paid more. In Luzon, the native is able to say a Thank youa (Salamat-po) in his mother tongue, but in the South (Visayas) there is no way of expressing thanks in native dialect to a donor, and although this may at first sight appear to be an insignificant fact, I think, nevertheless, a great deal may be deduced from it, for the deficiency of the wrord in the Visayan vernacular denotes a deficiency of the idea which that word should express.
a If the native be in want of a trivial thing, which by plain asking he could readily obtain, he will come with a long tale, often begin by telling a lie, and whilst he invariably scratches his head, he will beat about the bush until he comes to the point, with a supplicating tone and a saintly countenance hiding a mass of falsity. But if he has nothing to gain for himself, his reticence is astonish-
ingly convenient, for he may let your horse die and tell you afterward it was for want of rice paddy, or, just at the very moment you want to use something, he will tell you a Uala-po (There is not any).
a I have known natives whose mothers, according to their account, have died several times, and each time they have tried to beg the loan of the burial expenses.
a Even the best of natives neither appreciate, nor feel grateful for, nor even seem to understand, a spontaneous gift. Apparently, they only comprehend the favor when one yields to their asking. The lowest classes never give to each other, unsolicited, a cent's worth. If an European makes voluntary gratuities to the natives, he is considered a foola they entertain a contempt for him, which develops into intolerable impertinence. Therefore, to avoid this, if a native wants anything, never offer it voluntarily; if he comes to borrow, lend him a little less than he asks for, after a verbose preamble. If one at once lent, or gave, the full value asked for,
the native would continue to invent a host of pressing necessities, until onea s patience was exhausted. The saying, a Give him an inch and he will take an ell/ can truly be applied to the Filipinos. They are void of all feeling of magnanimity, and do not understand chivalry towards the weak or fallen foe.
a A native seldom restores the loan of anything voluntarily. On being remonstrated with for his remissness, after the date of repayment or return of the article has expired, he will coolly reply, a You did not ask me for it/ A native considers it no degradation to borrow money; it gives him no recurrent feeling of humiliation or poignant distress of mind. Thus, he will often give a costly feast to impress his neighbors with his wealth and maintain his local prestige, whilst on all sides he has debts innumerable. At most, he regards debt as an inconvenience, not as a calamity, and perchance this looseness of morality is the cause of his inability to resist evil in many forms. Were it not for the fear of a fine, no well-to-do native would willingly contribute his legal quota to the
expense of the State.
a Before entering another nativea s house, he is very complimentary, and sometimes three minutesa dialogue is exchanged between the visitor and the native visited before the former passes the threshold. When a native enters a Europeana s house, he generally satisfies his curiosity by looking all around, and often puts his head into a private room, asking permission to do so afterward.
a The lower class of native never comes at first call; among themselves, it is usual to call five or six times, raising the voice each time. If a native is told to tell another to come, he seldom goes to him to deliver the message, but calls him from a distance. The rule of the road for horsemen and canoe-men is (among themselves), that he who comes along behind must steer cleara the one in front, on either side, does not make way. When a native steals (and I must say they are fairly honest), he steals only wrhat he wants. One of the rudest acts, according to their social code, is to step over a person asleep on the floor. Sleeping is, with them, a very solemn matter; they are very averse to awakening any one, the idea being that during sleep the soul is absent from the body, and that if slumber be suddenly arrested, the soul might not have time to return. A person knowing the habits of the native, when he calls upon him and is told a He is asleep,a does not inquire further; the rest is understooda that he may have to wait an indefinite time until the sleeper wakes upa so he may as wrell depart. To get a servant to rouse you, you have to give him very imperative orders to that effect; then he steals by your side, and calls a Senor, senor,a repeatedly, and each time louder, until you are half awake; then he returns to the low note, and gradually raises his voice again until you are quite conscious.
a Wherever I have been, in the whole archipelagoa near the capital, or five hundred miles from ita I have found mothers
GENERAL, I.AWTON ON THE ROAD.
This photograph was taken while General Lawton was on the march to the battlefield where he was killed, and it is consequently the last picture ever taken of that gallant officer.