LIFE AMONG THE FILIPINOS.
THIS chapter will treat principally of the social and domestic relations of the civilized and Christian tribes of the archipelago, namely, the Tagalogs and the Visayans, both of whom are called Filipinos by our soldiers and most of our writers, with an indifferent regard for the meaning of the term. The Filipinos themselves object to the name, as it implies a certain degree of reproach; but it has been so long in use as to become a national term, and is employed without comment even by Senor Lala, the distinguished Tagalog author and lecturer. In referring to Filipinos, therefore, it will be understood that wTe mean Tagalogs on the island of Luzon, and Visayans in the more southern parts of the group.
Native families are usually very large. Ona this point Gen. Wheeler says: a I took pains to ask many of the men what was the largest number of children in any of the families which they knew. They generally answered eighteen or twenty. When asked the average
could to make amends for these lamentable catastrophes. But they aroused the native officers to an extraordinary degree, and they determined, rather than give up anything to the barbarous Americans, to lay waste their country and burn their towns and villages. Accordingly, Gen. Antonio Luna, second in command under Aguinaldo, issued the following proclamation and general order, under date of February 15th, 1899:
a Headquarters of the Military Operations against Manila.
a I, Antonio Luna, general-in-chief of operations, ordain and command from this date forward:
a First. The following will be executed by shooting, without court-martial:
a A. Spies and those who give news of us to the enemy.
a B. Those who commit robberies and those who violate women.
AMERICAN CAVALRY RETURNING TO MANILA AFTER THE CAPTURE OF PASIG.
The men are mounted on the wiry little native ponies, who have proved themselves to be very effective war-horses.
number, they usually replied, eight, nine or ten.a He also states that they are devoted to their children in a very remarkable degree, and that all their family relations seem to be of the most affectionate character. The General mentions an incident of a wounded Filipino woman, who was confined to her bed for several weeks, and during the whole time her baby, a little thing just old enough to toddle around, was constantly by her side, and appeared to absorb her whole attention. a This,a he adds, a is a good illustration of the characteristic devotion of Filipino women to their children.a
Several women, and possibly a few children, were killed in some of the first battles that took place between our troops and the Filipinos. These were purely accidents of war, and none regretted them more than the American officers, who did all they
a Second. All towns which may be abandoned by our forces will be burned down.
a No one deplores wrar more than I do. I detest it. But we have an inalienable right to defend our soil from falling into the hands of the fresh rulers who desire to appropriate it, slaughtering our men, women and children.
a For this reason we are in duty bound as Filipinos to sacrifice everything for our independence, however great may be the sacrifices which the fatherland requires of us.
a General headquarters at Polo, February 15th, 1899.
a The general-in-chief of operations,
a A. Luna.a
This was an instance of supreme devotion to patriotism based on an erroneous estimate of the character of the invaders. At